《青藏高原生态文明建设状况》白皮书
White Paper: Ecological Progress on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

 
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国务院新闻办公室18日发表《青藏高原生态文明建设状况》白皮书。全文如下:



The State Council Information Office of the People's Republic of China published a white paper titled Ecological Progress on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau on Wednesday. Following is the full text:


青藏高原生态文明建设状况 

中华人民共和国 

国务院新闻办公室 

2018年7月



Ecological Progress on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau 

The State Council Information Office of 

the People's Republic of China 

July 2018


目录



Contents


前言



Preamble


一、生态文明制度逐步健全



I. An Improving System for Ensuring Ecological Progress


二、生态保育成效显著



II. Prominent Progress in Ecosystem Conservation


三、环境质量持续稳定



III. Steady Improvement of Environmental Quality


四、绿色产业稳步发展



IV. Steady Development of Green Industry


五、科技支撑体系基本建立



V. Sci-tech Support System Is in Place


六、生态文化逐渐形成



VI. A Developing Culture That Values Ecological Awareness


结束语



Conclusion


前言



Preamble


青藏高原位于中国西南部,包括西藏和青海两省区全部,以及四川、云南、甘肃和新疆等四省区部分地区,总面积约260万平方公里,大部分地区海拔超过4000米。青藏高原被誉为“世界屋脊”“地球第三极”“亚洲水塔”,是珍稀野生动物的天然栖息地和高原物种基因库,是中国乃至亚洲重要的生态安全屏障,是中国生态文明建设的重点地区之一。



Located in Southwest China, the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau covers the entire Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai Province, in addition to parts of Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu and Xinjiang. It is about 2.6 million sq km in area and most of it lies at an altitude of more than 4,000 m above sea level. Hailed as the "roof of the world", the "third pole" and the "water tower of Asia", the Plateau is a natural habitat for rare animals and a gene pool of plateau life. It is a key eco-safety barrier in China and Asia, and a focus of China's drive to promote ecological progress.


中国共产党和中国政府高度重视生态文明建设。中国共产党第十八次全国代表大会以来,以习近平同志为核心的党中央,视建设生态文明为中华民族永续发展的根本大计,将生态文明建设与经济、政治、文化与社会建设一起纳入中国特色社会主义事业“五位一体”总体布局。中国大力树立和践行绿水青山就是金山银山的理念,像对待生命一样对待生态环境,坚持走文明发展之路,努力建设美丽中国。



The Communist Party of China (CPC) and the Chinese government have always valued ecological progress. Since the 18th CPC National Congress in 2012, the CPC Central Committee with Xi Jinping as its core has laid down ecological progress as a cornerstone for sustainable development of the Chinese nation, and made it one of the integral components of the development strategy for Chinese socialism together with economic, political, cultural, and social progress. China is striving to raise the awareness that "clear waters and green mountains are invaluable assets" and to put it into practice. We will value the ecological environment as we value our lives, and we will continue to pursue green development and build a beautiful China.


青藏高原生态文明建设,对推动高原可持续发展、促进中国和全球生态环境保护有着十分重要的影响。中国共产党和中国政府坚持生态保护第一,将保护好青藏高原生态作为关系中华民族生存和发展的大事。目前,青藏高原生态文明制度逐步健全,生态保育成效明显,环境质量稳定良好,绿色产业稳步发展,科技支撑体系基本建立,生态文化逐渐形成,青藏高原生态文明建设示范作用正在显现。



Ecological progress on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has a vital bearing on sustainable growth in the region and environmental protection in China and around the globe. The CPC and the Chinese government have taken ecological conservation as a top priority, and protection of the Plateau as a vital task for China's survival and development. Now a system in this regard is being improved step by step on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, with solid achievements in improving ecological conservation and environment quality. Steady growth has been witnessed in the local green industry with a system of technological support in place, and an eco-culture is taking shape to showcase the Plateau's exemplary role in ecological development.


一、生态文明制度逐步健全



I. An Improving System for Ensuring Ecological Progress


随着国家生态文明建设的不断推进,青藏高原生态文明建设相关政策和法规日益完善,高原生态文明制度体系逐步健全。



As China advances in environmental conservation, it is also improving its ecology-related policies and regulations for the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to form an increasingly complete system for ensuring ecological progress.


生态文明建设法律法规逐步完善



Ecology-related laws and regulations have been improved.


近年来,国家制定或修改了《中华人民共和国环境保护法》《中华人民共和国大气污染防治法》《中华人民共和国水污染防治法》《中华人民共和国固体废物污染环境防治法》《中华人民共和国环境保护税法》《中华人民共和国环境影响评价法》《中华人民共和国野生动物保护法》《中华人民共和国水法》《中华人民共和国气象法》《中华人民共和国草原法》等。这些法律的制定和实施,为青藏高原生态环境保护与区域社会经济发展提供了重要的法律制度保障。



In recent years China has enacted, amended or revised the following laws: 


• Environmental Protection Law of the People's Republic of China,


• Atmospheric Pollution Prevention and Control Law of the People's Republic of China, 


• Water Pollution Prevention and Control Law of the People's Republic of China, 


• Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Environment Pollution Caused by Solid Wastes, 


• Environmental Protection Tax Law of the People's Republic of China,


• Law of the People's Republic of China on Environmental Impact Assessment, 


• Law of the People's Republic of China on the Protection of Wildlife, 


• Water Law of the People's Republic of China,


• Meteorology Law of the People's Republic of China, and


• Grassland Law of the People's Republic of China.


The promulgation and implementation of these laws has provided a legal guarantee for protecting the ecological environment of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and boosting regional socio-economic development.


2015年,《中共中央国务院关于加快推进生态文明建设的意见》和《生态文明体制改革总体方案》发布,提出生态文明建设和生态文明体制改革的总体要求、目标愿景、重点任务和制度体系,明确了路线图和时间表。目前,中国已建立起覆盖全国的主体功能区制度和资源环境管理制度,中央环保督察实现了31个省区市全覆盖,对省以下环保机构监测监察执法实行垂直管理,并全面实行河长制、湖长制及控制污染物排放许可制。开展按流域设置环境监管和行政执法机构试点,增强流域环境监管和行政执法合力,实现流域环境保护统一规划、统一标准、统一环评、统一监测、统一执法。确立生态文明建设目标评价考核、领导干部自然资源资产离任审计等监督机制,形成环保职责明确、追究严格的责任制度链条,落实“党政同责”“一岗双责”。推动建立生态保护红线制度,制定自然资源统一确权登记、自然生态空间用途管制办法和全民所有自然资源资产有偿使用制度改革的指导意见,推进“多规合一”、国家公园体制等试点。健全生态保护补偿机制,设置跨地区环保机构生态环境损害赔偿制度改革试点。



Two documents were issued in 2015, and they were the Opinions of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council on Accelerating Ecological Progress, and the General Plan for Reforming the System for Ecological Conservation, laying out the overall requirements, prospected goals, key tasks, and institutional arrangements to ensure ecological progress and reform the ecological sector, complete with a roadmap and timetable. To date, China has established a nationwide system of main functional areas and a resource-environment administration system. The central supervisory mechanism for environmental protection covers all 31 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government, with the central environment watchdog directly overseeing the activities of environmental protection organs below provincial level, such as those commissioned for environmental monitoring, inspection, and law enforcement. It has also put in place a "river and lake chief" system – where selected local Party and government officials ensure their assigned rivers and lakes are free from pollution – and a licensing mechanism for controlling pollutant discharge. China has run pilot programs to carry out river basin-related environment monitoring and law enforcement, in order to strengthen supervision in different river basins and boost synergistic law enforcement, and to have unified planning, standards, assessment, monitoring, and law enforcement activities within the same basins. To assess the performance of officials in providing leadership to ecological conservation, China has set up an ecological goal appraisal system, and a supervisory system for auditing the natural resource assets when a relevant official leaves office. In this way, a clear-cut and rigorous liability mechanism has been put in place so that both Party and government officials take responsibility for environmental protection, and they both fulfill official duties and uphold clean governance. The state has set red lines for ecological conservation, and put in force unified registration of natural resource rights, measures for managing natural and ecological space, and guidelines on reforming paid use of natural resource assets owned by the whole people. Different regulations and measures have been integrated for simplification, and pilot programs on state parks have been rolled out. China has improved its ecological compensation mechanism, and run trials to reform the ecological damage compensation system coordinated between cross-regional environmental protection institutions.


与此同时,西藏、青海、四川、甘肃、云南等省区结合高原实际,制定了与生态文明建设相关的地方性法规和实施办法。西藏自治区制定了《关于着力构筑国家重要生态安全屏障 加快推进生态文明建设的实施意见》《关于建设美丽西藏的意见》《西藏自治区环境保护考核办法》等。青海省制定了《青海省生态文明制度建设总体方案》《青海省生态文明建设促进条例》《青海省创建全国生态文明先行区行动方案》等。四川省制定了《四川省自然保护区管理条例》等。甘肃省制定了《甘肃祁连山国家级自然保护区管理条例》等。云南省制定了《迪庆州“两江”流域生态安全屏障保护与建设规划》《滇西北生物多样性保护行动计划》等。青藏高原诸省区生态文明制度体系基本形成。



Each taking into account their local geographical conditions, Tibet, Qinghai, Sichuan, Gansu and Yunnan have formulated their own regulations and measures regarding ecological conservation. The Tibet Autonomous Region issued the Opinions on Building an Important National Barrier for Ecological Security and Accelerating Ecological Progress, Opinions on Building a Beautiful Tibet, and Measures of Tibet Autonomous Region on Environmental Conservation Appraisal. Qinghai Province released the General Plan of Qinghai Province on Developing a System for Ecological Progress, Regulations of Qinghai Province on Promoting Ecological Progress, and Action Plan of Qinghai Province on Pioneering an Ecological Model. Sichuan issued the Regulations of Sichuan Province on the Management of Nature Reserves; Gansu, the Regulations on the Management of Qilian Mountain State Nature Reserve; and Yunnan, the Plan on the Protection of the Two Rivers Ecological Barrier in Deqen Prefecture and Action Plan on the Protection of Biodiversity in Northwest Yunnan. Through these efforts a system has been established in all relevant provinces and autonomous regions to ensure ecological progress on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.


自然保护地体系初步建立



A system of protected natural areas has been set up.


自然保护地体系是保护生物多样性、维护自然资本和生态系统服务、保障国家乃至全球民众福祉的重要管理手段。目前,青藏高原自然保护地体系正在由以自然保护区为主体向以国家公园为主体转变。



The system of protected natural areas is an important means of management to protect biodiversity, preserve natural capital, maintain ecosystem services, and safeguard the wellbeing of Chinese people and the peoples of the world. Currently the protected natural areas on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are more and more composed of national parks than of nature reserves.



1963年,青藏高原第一个国家级自然保护区(现白水江国家级自然保护区)成立。1994年《中华人民共和国自然保护区条例》颁布实施后,明确了自然保护区等级体系、管理机构和功能区,青藏高原的自然保护区建设进入快速稳定发展阶段。目前,青藏高原已经建成各级自然保护区155个(其中国家级41个、省级64个),面积达82.24万平方公里,约占高原总面积的31.63%,占中国陆地自然保护区总面积的57.56%,基本涵盖了高原独特和脆弱生态系统及珍稀物种资源。



In 1963, the Plateau delineated its first state nature reserve (now the Baishuijiang State Nature Reserve). The Regulations of the People's Republic of China on Nature Reserves, promulgated in 1994, defined the ranking system, the management structure and the function zones of nature reserves, ushering in a period of rapid development of nature reserves on the Plateau. To date, the Plateau has established in total 155 nature reserves at all levels (41 state and 64 provincial ones), covering a total area of 822,400 sq km. This is equivalent to 31.63 percent of the Plateau's landmass and represents 57.56 percent of China's land nature reserve areas. Basically, all of the Plateau's unique and fragile ecosystems and rare species can be found in these reserves.


随着生态文明体制改革的深入推进,中国政府提出建立以国家公园为主体的自然保护地体系。2016年,国家正式批准《三江源国家公园体制试点方案》,这是中国第一个国家公园体制改革试点,核心是实现三江源重要自然生态资源国家所有、全民共享、世代传承。青海省制定了《三江源国家公园条例(试行)》,从公园本底调查、保护对象、产权制度、资产负债表、生物多样性保护、生态环境监测、文化遗产保护、生态补偿、防灾减灾、检验检疫等方面对公园管理做出明确规定。2018年1月,国家发展改革委印发《三江源国家公园总体规划》,进一步明确了三江源国家公园建设的基本原则、总体布局、功能定位和管理目标等。三江源国家公园建设将为青藏高原及周边地区的绿色发展发挥引领和示范作用。



As China reforms its system for ecological progress, the government has issued a directive to establish a system of protected natural areas, with state parks as the main element. In 2016, the state ratified the Plan for the Trial Run of the State Park at Sanjiangyuan (literally, source of three large rivers), the first pilot reform program to introduce state parks in China. The core aim is to make sure that the ecological resources of the Sanjiangyuan area, where the headwaters of the Yangtze River, Yellow River and Lancang River converge, are owned by the state, shared by the people, and passed down to future generations. The Regulations of Sanjiangyuan State Park (Trial), issued by Qinghai Province, defines clear provisions on the parks' management in terms of background survey, targets of protection, ownership structure, assets and liabilities, biodiversity preservation, environmental monitoring, cultural legacy protection, ecological compensation, disaster prevention and reduction, and inspection and quarantine. In January 2018, the National Development and Reform Commission released the Overall Plan of Sanjiangyuan State Park, which further clarified the principles of running the park, its layout, functions, and management targets. The park will serve as a role model to guide green development on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and in surrounding areas.


生态补偿制度得到确立



An ecological compensation mechanism is in place.


生态补偿制度是国家保护生态环境的重要举措。国家在青藏高原建立了重点生态功能区转移支付、森林生态效益补偿、草原生态保护补助奖励、湿地生态效益补偿等生态补偿机制。2008-2017年,中央财政分别下达青海、西藏两省区重点生态功能区转移支付资金162.89亿元和83.49亿元,补助范围涉及两省区77个重点生态县域和所有国家级禁止开发区。



The ecological compensation mechanism is an important step taken by the state to protect the environment. In the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau region, China has initiated a series of ecological compensation mechanisms, including transfer payments to key ecological function zones, forest ecological benefit compensation, grassland ecological protection subsidy and reward, and wetland ecological benefit compensation. In 2008-2017, the central government made transfer payments of RMB16.29 billion and RMB8.35 billion to the key ecological function zones in Qinghai and Tibet, covering 77 key counties and all areas prohibited to development by the state.


“十五”(2001-2005年)以来,西藏自治区获得国家下达的森林、草原、湿地、重点生态功能区等各类生态补偿资金累计达316亿元。其中,“十二五”(2011-2015年)期间,国家累计下达西藏草原生态保护补助奖励资金108.8亿元。2015年以来,自治区探索建立野生动物肇事补偿机制,投入8500万元帮助牧民减轻因野生动物肇事带来的损失。



Since the 10th Five-year Plan period (2001-2005), Tibet Autonomous Region has received RMB31.6 billion in ecological compensation for its forests, grasslands, wetlands, and key ecological function zones. During the 12th Five-year Plan period (2011-2015), the state paid a total of RMB10.9 billion to Tibet in grassland conservation subsidy and rewards. Since 2015, the autonomous region has been experimenting with a compensation program for damage caused by wildlife, mitigating herdsmen's losses to a total amount of RMB85 million.


国家对青海省生态建设投入力度不断加大。2013年起,中央财政累计安排资金164亿元,陆续实施了草原、森林和湿地等生态效益补偿类项目。为实现生态保护和脱贫有机结合,青海省推出生态公益管护员制度,每年安排补助资金8.8亿元。“十二五”以来,青海省有62.23万户农牧民住房得到改善,162.4万人喝上洁净水,65万无电人口用上可靠电,人民生活水平得到较大改善。云南省迪庆州自2009年起实施公益林生态效益补偿制度,至2017年国家累计补助资金达11.03亿元。2017年,四川省甘孜州和阿坝州有效管护集体公益林分别为128.23万公顷和69.60万公顷,公益林森林生态效益年度补偿资金分别为2.84亿元和1.54亿元。



Funds to encourage ecological progress in Qinghai Province have been increased. Since 2013, the central government has allotted a total of RMB16.4 billion in ecological compensation for grasslands, forests and wetlands in Qinghai. To integrate conservation and poverty reduction, Qinghai has initiated a public ranger program to monitor the environment, with an annual subsidy of RMB880 million. Since the 12th Five-year Plan period the state has helped 622,300 farming and herding households in Qinghai to obtain better housing, provided clean drinking water to 1.6 million people, and ensured reliable power access to 650,000 people. This represents a considerable improvement of quality of life. In Deqen Prefecture of Yunnan Province, an ecological compensation mechanism for public benefit forests has been in place since 2009, receiving a total of RMB1.1 billion in state subsidies by 2017. In 2017, Ganzi Prefecture of Sichuan Province had 1,282,300 ha of public benefit forests under effective protection and received RMB284 million in ecological compensation; the corresponding figures for Aba Prefecture were 696,000 ha and RMB154 million.


二、生态保育成效显著



II. Prominent Progress in Ecosystem Conservation


20世纪60年代以来,特别是90年代以来,中国政府在青藏高原部署了类型多样的生态保育工程,包括野生动植物保护及自然保护区建设、重点防护林体系建设、天然林资源保护、退耕还林还草、退牧还草、水土流失治理以及湿地保护与恢复等。西藏自治区实施了生态安全屏障保护与建设工程和“两江四河”(雅鲁藏布江、怒江、拉萨河、年楚河、雅砻河、狮泉河)流域造林绿化工程等。青海省实施了祁连山“山水林田湖草”生态保护修复工程、青海湖流域生态环境保护与综合治理工程、三江源生态保护和建设等重点生态工程。2011年,《青藏高原区域生态建设与环境保护规划(2011-2030年)》颁布实施。一系列生态建设工程的实施在生态保育方面取得了积极效果,生态系统退化的趋势得到控制,生物多样性持续恢复,一些重点生态工程区的生态功能全面好转。



Since the 1960s, and especially over the last three decades, the Chinese government has put in place various ecosystem conservation projects, including wildlife protection and nature reserve development, the construction of key shelter forests, natural forest conservation, returning farmland to forest and grassland, restoring grazing land to grassland, water and soil conservation, and wetland conservation and restoration. The Tibet Autonomous Region has implemented a project for the protection and construction of an eco-safety barrier, and a project for afforestation in the basins of the Yarlung Tsangpo, Nujiang, Lhasa, Nyangchu, Yalong, and Shiquan rivers. Qinghai Province implemented a project for the conservation and restoration of the Qilian Mountain ecosystem, composed of mountains, rivers, forest, farmland, lakes, and grassland, a project for the conservation and comprehensive improvement of the Qinghai Lake ecosystem, and a project for the ecological conservation and construction of Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve. In 2011, the Chinese government issued and implemented the Plan for Regional Ecological Construction and Environmental Protection on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (2011-2030). A number of eco-projects have been implemented, achieving positive results in ecosystem conservation, bringing under control the degradation of the local ecosystem, restoring the biodiversity, and the ecological functions of several regions where key eco-projects were implemented have been comprehensively improved. 


生态退化得到有效控制



Ecological degradation is under control.


高寒草地是青藏高原最主要的生态系统类型,发挥着重要的生态安全屏障功能,也是高原畜牧业的基础。由于气候变化和超载过牧等原因,高寒草地不断退化,至20世纪80年代中期,西藏自治区和青海省的草地面积为82万平方公里。此后,随着退牧还草、草原生态保护补助奖励政策以及草原鼠虫害防治等一系列草地生态保护建设工程的陆续实施,青藏高原草地保育成效逐步显现。研究表明,1982-2009年,青藏高原草地覆盖度和净初级生产力总体呈增加态势,草地覆盖度增加的区域约占草地总面积的47%,净初级生产力明显增加的面积达32%以上。近十年来,草地生态系统稳定向好。



Alpine grassland is a major ecosystem on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, playing an important role as an eco-safety barrier, and serving as the basis of highland animal husbandry. Climate change, overgrazing and some other reasons caused continuous degradation of alpine grasslands. By the mid-1980s, the grassland area in Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai Province had been reduced to 820,000 sq km in total. Later, due to the implementation by the government of such policies as issuance of allowances for restoring grazing land to grassland and protecting the grassland ecosystem, and the undertaking of a number of grassland ecological conservation projects, such as pest and rodent prevention and control, progress was made in grassland ecosystem conservation on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. According to research, from 1982 to 2009 the grassland coverage rate of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and its net primary productivity (NPP) showed an overall increase, with newly-added grassland coverage accounting for 47 percent of the total, and the area with a dramatic NPP increase reaching more than 32 percent of the total. In the recent decade, the local grassland ecosystem has maintained steady and positive improvement.


青藏高原森林主要分布在滇西北、藏东南、川西、甘南和青海东部地区。1950年以来,森林资源在面积、蓄积、类型及空间分布格局等方面均发生了显著变化。2016年第九次全国森林资源清查结果显示,西藏林地面积达1798.19万公顷,森林面积1490.99万公顷,森林覆盖率12.14%,活立木总蓄积23.05亿立方米,与2011年第八次全国森林资源清查结果相比,林地与森林面积分别增加14.75万和19.87万公顷,森林覆盖率提高0.16个百分点,森林蓄积量增加2047万立方米,实现了森林面积和蓄积“双增”。



The forests on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are mainly distributed in northwest Yunnan, southeast Tibet, west Sichuan, south Gansu, and east Qinghai. Since the 1950s, great changes have taken place in terms of coverage, reserve, type, and spatial distribution of the forests. According to the results of the Ninth National Forest Resource Survey in 2016, in Tibet, the area of forested land was 17.98 million ha, that of forests was 14.91 million ha, the forest coverage rate was 12.14 percent, and the total stock of timber reached 2.3 billion cu m. Compared with the results of the Eighth National Forest Resource Survey conducted in 2011, in Tibet, the area of forested land and that of forests had increased by 147,500 ha and 198,700 ha respectively, the rate of forest coverage went up by 0.16 percentage point, and the stock of timber by 20.47 million cu m, an increase in both forest area and timber stock. 


青藏高原是中国湿地分布最广、面积最大的区域。1990年,青藏高原湿地面积约为13.45万平方公里。1990-2006年,青藏高原湿地呈现出持续退化状态,以每年0.13%的速率减少,总面积减少了约3000平方公里。2006年以来,在湿地保护与自然因素综合作用下,湿地面积明显回升。至2011年,仅西藏自治区和青海省湿地面积已达14.67万平方公里,湿地退化态势总体上得到遏制。至2014年,青海省湿地面积达8.14万平方公里。近年来,随着保护力度的加大,湿地生态系统进一步好转。



The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau boasts the most and largest area of wetlands in China. In 1990, the total area of wetlands on the Plateau was about 134,500 sq km. From 1990 to 2006, local wetlands suffered continuous degradation at an annual rate of 0.13 percent. In this period, the total area of wetlands had been reduced by 3,000 sq km. Since 2006, due to efforts in conservation and natural environmental factors, the area of wetlands have picked up obviously. By 2011, the wetland area in Tibet Autonomous Region and Qinghai Province alone had reached 146,700 sq km, and the trend of wetland degradation had generally been contained. By 2014, the wetland area in Qinghai had reached 81,400 sq km. In recent years, as China has intensified efforts in conservation, further improvement has been witnessed in the local wetland ecosystem. 


生物多样性保护成效显著



Significant achievements have been made in biodiversity protection.


青藏高原是全球生物多样性最丰富的地区之一,羌塘-三江源、岷山-横断山北段、喜马拉雅东南部和横断山南段等区域是我国生物多样性保护优先区域。高原特有种子植物3760余种,特有脊椎动物280余种,珍稀濒危高等植物300余种,珍稀濒危动物120余种。已建立的自然保护区,有效保护了青藏高原特有与珍稀濒危的动植物及其生存环境。



The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is one of the regions with the richest biodiversity in the world. The Qiangtang-Sanjiangyuan area, the area extending from the Minshan Mountain to the northern range of Hengduan Mountains, the area southeast of the Himalayas, and the southern range of Hengduan Mountains are key biodiversity conservation zones in China. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has about 3,760 distinctive spermatophyte species, 280 distinctive vertebrate species, 300 rare and endangered species of higher plants, and 120 species of rare and endangered animals. The nature reserves established have effectively protected the rare and endangered wildlife unique to the Plateau as well as their habitats. 


珍稀濒危物种种群的恢复与扩大是生物多样性保护成效的明显标志。研究表明,青藏高原黑颈鹤、藏羚羊、普氏原羚、野牦牛、马鹿、滇金丝猴等的个体数量正在稳步增加。雅鲁藏布江中游河谷黑颈鹤国家级自然保护区建立以来,到此越冬的黑颈鹤逐年增加,约占全球黑颈鹤数量的80%,已成为全球最大的黑颈鹤越冬地。羌塘高原藏羚羊个体数量从2000年的6万多只恢复到2016年的20万只以上,野牦牛个体数量由保护前的6000多头恢复到2016年的10000多头。白马雪山国家级自然保护区滇金丝猴个体数量由保护区建立前的约2000只恢复到2014年的约2500只。此外,在一些地方还发现新的珍稀濒危物种。国际上认为早已灭绝的西藏马鹿,1995年在西藏自治区桑日县被重新发现,且个体数量不断扩大。高黎贡山国家级自然保护区发现极度濒危物种怒江金丝猴。尕海-则岔国家级自然保护区监测到黑头噪鸦等。



The restoration and expansion of rare and endangered species is obvious evidence of success in biodiversity conservation. According to research, the numbers of black-necked crane (Grus nigricollis), Tibetan antelope (Pantholopshodgsonii), Przewalski's gazelle (Procapraprze walskii), wild yak (Bosmutus), red deer (Cervuselaphus), and Yunnan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopi thecusbieti), have increased steadily. Since the establishment of the Black-necked Crane National Nature Reserve on the Middle Reaches of the Yarlung Tsangpo River in Tibet Autonomous Region in 1993, the number of overwintering black-necked crane has increased year by year, accounting for 80 percent of the world's total, and the nature reserve has become the world's largest wintering ground for black-necked cranes. The number of Tibetan antelope on the Qiangtang Plateau in Tibet Autonomous Region increased from about 60,000 in 2000 to over 200,000 in 2016. And the number of wild yak in this area increased from 6,000 before it was included for protection to 10,000 in 2016. At the Baima Snow Mountain National Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province, the number of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys increased from about 2,000 in 1988, when the nature reserve was established, to about 2,500 in 2014. Additionally, new populations of rare and endangered species have been found at several localities. The Tibet red deer, which had been considered extinct, was rediscovered in Sangri County, Tibetan Autonomous Region in 1995, and its number is increasing. The Burmese snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopith ecusstrykeri), one of the most endangered species, was found at the Gaoligong Mountain National Nature Reserve in Yunnan Province. The Sichuan Jay (Perisoreus internigrans) was found at the Gahai-Zecha National Nature Reserve in Gansu Province. 


改善生物栖息地是生物多样性保护的基础,青藏高原植被改善在整体上提升了野生动物栖息地环境质量。1998-2009年,西藏珠穆朗玛峰国家级自然保护区核心区植被明显好转。2005年以来,三江源自然保护区荒漠化得到遏制,湿地面积增加,植被生态状况改善,野生动物栖息地破碎化趋势减缓且完整性逐步提高,生态环境明显好转。尕海-则岔国家级自然保护区内的尕海湖面积由2003年的480公顷增加到2013年的2354公顷,且近年来基本保持在2000公顷,水域面积增加促进了水禽类的繁衍生息。



Improvement of the wildlife habitats is the basis for protecting biodiversity. The improvement of vegetation on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has improved the environmental quality of local wildlife habitats. From 1998 to 2009, marked improvement had been observed in the vegetation of core areas of the Mount Qomolangma National Nature Reserve in Tibet Autonomous Region. Since 2005, at the Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve in Qinghai Province, desertification has been contained, the area of wetlands has been increased, vegetation has improved, wildlife habitat fragmentation has been slowed, and the eco-environment has notably improved. In the Gahai-Zecha National Nature Reserve in Qinghai Province, the area of the Gahai Lake increased from 480 ha in 2003 to 2,354 ha in 2013, and has maintained a coverage in excess of 2,000 ha in recent years; this increase in the water surface area has helped water fowl to survive and multiply. 


重点生态工程初见成效



Key eco-projects have produced preliminary results.


2009年,国家批准《西藏生态安全屏障保护与建设规划(2008-2030年)》,在西藏实施保护、建设和支撑保障三大类10项工程,截至2017年年底已累计投入96亿元。一期工程(2008-2014年)初步建成西藏生态工程的主体框架,部分重点工程已取得明显的生态环境效益,生态系统服务功能逐步提升,生态屏障功能稳定向好。



In 2009, the state approved the Plan for the Protection and Construction of the Eco-safety Barrier in Tibet (2008-2030). By the end of 2017, 10 projects concerning ecological conservation, construction, and support had been implemented, with a total investment of RMB9.6 billion. The first-stage project (2008-2014) completed the framework of Tibet's eco-projects; several key projects have begun to yield notable ecological effects; local ecosystem service functions improved steadily; and the functions of the ecological barrier remained stable and showed continuous improvement. 


2005年,国家启动三江源自然保护区生态保护与建设工程,截至2017年年底已累计投入80亿元。2013年完成一期工程,草地退化趋势得到初步遏制,水体与湿地生态系统整体恢复,水源涵养和流域水供给能力提高。与2004年相比,长江、黄河、澜沧江三大江河年均向下游多输出58亿立方米的优质水,为区域经济社会发展提供了有力支撑。



In 2005, China launched a project for the ecological conservation and construction of Sanjiangyuan National Nature Reserve; by the end of 2017, the total investment amounted to RMB8 billion. By the end of the first-stage of the project in 2013, grassland degradation had been contained; water and wetland ecosystems had been restored; and water conservation and water supply capacity in river basins had improved. Compared with 2004, the Yangtze River, Yellow River, and Lancang River provided their lower reaches with additional 5.8 billion cu m of quality water annually on the average – a forceful support for regional social and economic development. 


三、环境质量持续稳定



III. Steady Improvement of Environmental Quality


国家及地方政府在流域综合治理、农村与城镇人居环境改善、工矿污染防控等方面实施了一系列的环境保护工程。青藏高原环境质量及人居环境持续向好。



The central and local governments have carried out a number of environmental protection projects for comprehensive improvement of river basins, improvement of urban and rural living conditions, and prevention and control of pollution from factories and mines. As a result, the environmental quality and living conditions on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau have steadily turned better.


水环境质量稳定良好



Quality of the water environment has kept improving.


青藏高原是亚洲多条主要江河的源头区,也是中国水资源管理和水环境保护最严格的区域之一。国家不断加大对青藏高原水环境保护力度,主要措施包括:编制重要水域综合规划,划定江河湖泊水功能区,明确水域功能和水质保护目标,核定重要江河湖泊水功能区纳污能力和限排总量,实行最严格的水资源管理制度。建立省(区)、地(市)、县(区)三级行政区考核指标体系,推进水生态环境保护与修复,保障青藏高原水生态环境安全。



The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is where a number of Asia's largest rivers see their headwaters; it is one of the regions under the strictest water resource management and water environment protection in China. The state has reinforced protection on the Plateau with a set of key measures including: compiling comprehensive planning for major water bodies, demarcating the functional zones of rivers and lakes, clearly defining the functions of water bodies and the goals of water quality protection, determining the pollution accommodating capacity of major rivers and lakes and the total volume of discharges allowed, and introducing a strictest system of water resource management. A system of assessment quotas has been established at three administrative levels – province (autonomous region), prefecture (city) and county (district) – as a measure to promote water environment protection and restoration and ensure the security of water ecology on the Plateau.


“十二五”期间,国家投入253.12亿元,用于青藏高原农村饮水、水土保持、牧区水利等工程建设,解决了457.1万农牧民的饮水安全问题,并建成1400多座寺庙通水工程,保障了高氟、高砷、苦咸、污染水及局部严重缺水地区的饮水安全。2014年,国家投入4.78亿元,支持纳木错、羊卓雍错、克鲁克湖和黄河源湖泊群等湖泊流域的环境治理和生态修复。近年来,实施小流域生态综合治理、坡耕地水土流失综合整治等工程,新增水土流失治理面积1730平方公里。实施三江源、青海湖、祁连山生态保护等工程,每年向下游输送600亿立方米的优质水。目前,青藏高原主要江河湖泊基本处于天然状态,水质状况保持良好。



During the 12th Five-year Plan period, the state spent RMB25.31 billion on Plateau projects related to rural drinking water, water and soil conservation, and water conservation on pasture land, providing safe drinking water to 4.57 million farmers and herdsmen, and building water supply facilities for 1,400 monasteries. Drinking water is now safe in areas where local water has high fluoride and arsenide levels, tastes bitter and salty or is highly polluted, and in places that are seriously short of water. In 2014, the state invested RMB478 million in the environmental improvement and ecological restoration projects of Namco, Yamzho Yumco, Keluke Lake and the lakes at the source of the Yellow River. In recent years, a total of 1,730 sq km of land have been saved from soil erosion due to the effort invested in small river basin ecological improvement and hillside land soil conservation. Thanks to the ecological protection endeavors at the source of three large rivers, the Qinghai Lake and the Qilian Mountains, 60 billion cu m of quality water is supplied to downstream areas every year. At present, the major rivers and lakes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are basically in their original natural conditions with good water quality.


土壤功能有效提升



Soil functions have been effectively enhanced.


青藏高原是全球受污染最少的地区之一,土壤环境总体处于自然本底状态。土壤类型和重金属元素含量受控于成土母岩性质和气候条件,人类活动的影响较小。高原湖泊沉积物中铜、镍、铅等重金属元素含量低于人类活动频繁区湖泊沉积物。从耕地土壤来看,西藏大部分耕地土壤重金属元素含量优于国家一级土壤标准。



The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is one of the least polluted areas on earth, and the soil environment is overall in its original environmental background state. The soil types and the heavy metal element content are determined by the property of parent rocks and climatic conditions, and little impacted by human activities. The content of copper, nickel, lead and other heavy metals in the local lake deposits is lower than those of lake deposits in places more frequented by humans. The heavy metal content in the arable soils is lower than the national standards for soil of Grade I.


随着生态建设与环境保护相关措施的逐步实施,青藏高原土壤生态功能得到有效提升。近50年,中国草地土壤碳储量呈波动式增加趋势,其中青藏高原草地土壤碳储量的贡献最大(63.1%),高原高寒草地3米深的土壤无机碳库约占全国土壤无机碳库的70%。从水源涵养能力看,青藏高原年均水源涵养量达3450亿立方米。三江源生态保护与建设一期工程完成后,林草生态系统年均水源涵养量比工程实施前增加了15.60%;围栏封育等措施也促进了土壤有机碳、土壤水分、土壤微生物环境等性状改善。



Along with the implementation of ecological and environmental protection measures, the ecological functions of the local soils have been effectively enhanced. Over the last 50 years, the carbon storage in China's grassland soils has displayed a tendency of undulating increase, with the grasslands on the Plateau contributing the most (63.1 percent) and the inorganic carbon pool in the soils three meters under the alpine grasslands accounting for 70 percent of the national total. The annual water conservation volume is 345 billion cu m. Following the completion of phase I of the Sanjiangyuan ecological protection and construction project, the annual water conservation volume of the forest and grassland ecosystems has increased by 15.6 percent, and fencing the forests has also contributed to improvement in the organic carbon, moisture and micro-organics content in the soils.


大气环境保持优良



Air environment has maintained good quality.


青藏高原人类活动强度较低,空气质量受人类活动影响较小,污染物种类较少,浓度较低,各类污染物含量与北极地区相当。随着绿色能源推广、生态城镇建设和农村环境综合治理的不断推进,青藏高原空气质量进一步改善。2016年,全国颗粒物年均浓度达标的96个重点城市中,16个位于青藏高原。目前,青藏高原地区仍然是地球上最洁净的地区之一。



The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has a low intensity of human activity. The air quality is little impacted, the types of pollutants are few and the density is low, and the content of pollutants is similar to those at the North Pole. With the promotion of use of green energy, the progress in building ecological towns, and efforts to improve rural environment, the air quality on the Plateau has seen further improvement. Of the 96 key cities whose annual density of particles met relevant standards in 2016, 16 were located on the Plateau. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is still one of the cleanest regions on earth.


人居环境显著改善



Living environment has notably improved.


2009年以来,国家累计投入62.94亿元,支持西藏自治区、青海省以及四川、云南、甘肃藏区城镇的生活污水垃圾处理设施及污水管网项目,提高了当地城镇生活污水、垃圾处理能力。“十二五”以来,国家累计投入54.52亿元,支持高原诸省区开展农村环境综合整治。其中,安排西藏自治区3.49亿元、四川省16.31亿元、云南省14.54亿元、甘肃省8.99亿元、青海省11.19亿元。



The state has spent some RMB6.3 billion since 2009 on domestic sewage and waste disposal projects and sewage conduits in the towns of Tibet Autonomous Region, Qinghai Province and the Tibetan-inhabited towns in Sichuan, Yunnan, and Gansu provinces, leading to a significant increase in local disposal capacity. Since the 12th Five-year Plan period, the state has invested RMB5.45 billion improving the rural environment on the Plateau. Of this sum, RMB349 million went to Tibet, 1.63 billion to Sichuan, 1.45 billion to Yunnan, 899 million to Gansu, and 1.12 billion to Qinghai.


西藏自治区加强城乡社区绿化美化,解决垃圾分类处理、噪声污染处理、污水排放、秸秆焚烧等问题。2010年以来,西藏自治区安排资金118.18亿元,开展5261个村人居环境建设和环境综合整治工作,建立农村环境长效管护机制,改善了环境质量。2008年以来,青海省开展农村环境连片整治工作,累计投入专项资金17.4亿元,对3015个村庄和游牧民定居点实施了环境综合整治,受益人口220万人,占全省农村总人口的76%。2014年,青海省启动高原美丽乡村建设工作,截至2017年年底,已完成建设投资107.7亿元。目前,青海省城市生活污水处理率、生活垃圾无害化处理率分别达到78.02%和96.69%,城镇人居环境明显改善。四川省甘孜州实施“垃圾污水三年行动”,2017年落实地方政府专项债券资金2.75亿元用于新型城镇化建设。截至2017年年底,四川省阿坝州共投资5.85亿元用于建设污水、垃圾处理设施。云南省迪庆州禁止在辖区内销售、提供、使用不降解的塑料制品,水污染、土壤污染和大气污染治理取得明显成效。甘肃省甘南州已投入52.46亿元,实施703个生态文明小康村建设项目,改善了这些村基础设施、公共服务、社会保障和生态环境等生产生活条件。



The Tibet Autonomous Region has worked to improve the living conditions of urban and rural communities and address problems related to garbage classification, noise pollution, sewage discharge, and straw burning. Since 2010, it has allocated RMB11.82 billion for the improvement of living conditions in more than 5,261 villages, and introduced long-term mechanisms for rural environment management and protection. Since 2008, Qinghai Province has allocated RMB1.74 billion of special funds for the environmental improvement of over 3,015 villages and settlements of nomadic people, benefiting 2.2 million people – 76 percent of its rural population. In 2014, Qinghai started a beautiful village project, in which it had invested RMB10.77 billion by the end of 2017. Today, the rate of urban domestic sewage disposal has reached 78 percent and domestic waste bio-safety disposal 96.69 percent, and the living conditions have been notably improved in cities and towns. The Garze Prefecture of Sichuan Province has carried out a three-year action to address waste and sewage problems, and directed RMB275 million of local government special bond funds into new urbanization efforts. By the end of 2017, the Aba Prefecture of Sichuan Province had invested RMB585 million in sewage and waste disposal facilities. The Deqen Prefecture of Yunnan Province has prohibited the sale, supply and usage of non-degradable plastic products in the areas under its jurisdiction, and achieved marked progress in water, soil and air pollution control. The Gannan Prefecture of Gansu Province has spent RMB5.25 billion creating 703 "well-off villages" with a pleasant ecological environment, ending up in improving their infrastructure, public services, and social security.


四、绿色产业稳步发展



IV. Steady Development of Green Industry


为保护脆弱生态环境,青藏高原各省区努力控制资源开发利用强度,在保持良好环境质量和生态文明建设较高公众满意度的同时,努力探索绿色发展途径。目前,青藏高原各省区以循环经济、可再生能源、特色产业为特点的绿色发展模式已初步建立,绿色发展水平不断提高。



With the goal of protecting the fragile ecological environment, the provinces and autonomous regions on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau work hard to control the intensity of resource exploitation and utilization. Efforts are made to maintain a good environment and a high degree of public satisfaction with ecological progress, and to achieve green development. An economic model featuring a circular economy, renewable energy, and distinctive industries, is forming on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, signaling an increasing level of green development.


绿色生产初具规模



Green production has begun to take shape.


青藏高原经济发展坚持走生态环境友好、资源节约集约的道路,努力形成绿色发展方式。



In their efforts to create a green development model, provinces and autonomous regions on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are committed to an eco-friendly path to economic growth involving low and intensive utilization of resources. 


国家在青海省设立了柴达木循环经济试验区、西宁经济技术开发区2个国家级循环经济试点产业园。柴达木循环经济试验区形成了盐湖化工、油气化工、金属冶金、煤炭综合利用、新能源、新材料、特色生物等产业,园区资源集约利用水平不断提升;西宁经济技术开发区基本形成了有色金属、化工、高原生物制品、中药(含藏药)、藏毯绒纺等产业,园区发展的质量和效益不断提高,示范带动作用明显。通过大力推动国家循环经济发展先行区建设,绿色产业框架初步构建,产业链条不断延伸,基础设施逐步完善。



The state has established two national circular economy pilot industrial parks in Qinghai Province – Qaidam Circular Economy Pilot Area and Xining Economic and Technological Development Zone. Industrial activities in Qaidam Circular Economy Pilot Area include salt lake chemical, oil and gas chemical, metallurgy, comprehensive utilization of coal, new energy, new materials and special biological industries, with more intensive utilization of the local resources. Xining Economic and Technological Development Zone features nonferrous metals, chemicals, alpine biological products, traditional Chinese medicine (including Tibetan medicine), Tibetan carpets, playing a leading and exemplary role in improving the quality and increasing the benefits of development. A basic green industry framework is now in place, extending the industrial chain and improving the infrastructure.


西藏自治区依托资源优势,加快产业结构优化升级,制定了《西藏自治区循环经济发展规划(2013-2020年)》,大力发展清洁能源、旅游、文化、特色食品、天然饮用水以及交通运输、商贸物流、金融、信息服务等绿色低碳经济。2016年,拉萨市被列为国家循环经济示范城市,目前正按照国家审定的《西藏自治区拉萨市循环经济示范城市创建实施方案》推进试点示范建设。



Based on its resource strengths, the Tibet Autonomous Region has been endeavoring to optimize and upgrade its industrial structure. It has worked out the Circular Economy Development Plan of the Tibet Autonomous Region (2013-2020). Efforts are focused on clean energy, tourism, culture, characteristic foods, natural drinking water, transport, commerce, logistics, finance, information services, and other green low-carbon economic activities. In 2016 Lhasa was designated as a national demonstration city for the circular economy, and is now working in accordance with the Establishing the Implementation Plan of Circular Economy Demonstration City for Lhasa of the Tibet Autonomous Region. 


云南省迪庆州依托优势资源,实施食品、药品、饮品、观赏品4大工程和绿色产业园区建设,全州生物产业呈现蓬勃发展的态势。甘肃省甘南州按照区域生态功能区的定位,确立“生态立州”战略,明确了绿色产业发展方向。



Relying on its resource strengths, Yunnan Province's Deqen Prefecture is focusing on four major sectors (foods, drugs, beverages and ornamental products) and on the construction of green industrial parks, along with a burgeoning biological industry. In accordance with the ecological functions of local areas, Gansu Province's Gannan Prefecture has developed a strategy of "building an eco-friendly prefecture", and defined the future direction of green industry. 



特色农牧业优势凸显



Unique strengths of local agriculture and animal husbandry have become increasingly outstanding.


青藏高原各省区着力发展特色农牧业,培育绿色、有机农畜产品品牌,建设生态农牧业试验区。特色农牧业已成为青藏高原绿色经济的重要组成部分。



Provinces and autonomous regions on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau focus on unique agriculture and animal husbandry, cultivating green and organic agricultural and livestock products and brands, and building pilot areas for ecological agriculture and animal husbandry. These have become an important part of the green economy on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.


2004年以来,国家累计投入30余亿元,在西藏实施青稞、牦牛、藏药材等10多类450多个农牧业特色产业项目,培育龙头企业100多家,实现农牧民增收11.82亿元,使175.4万人受益。西藏自治区推动地理标志产品认证,培育特色品牌,加快特色农牧产业发展。目前已有帕里牦牛、岗巴羊、隆子黑青稞、察隅猕猴桃、波密天麻等10多个农牧地理标志保护产品获得国家有关部门认证。



Since 2004, the state has invested more than RMB3 billion in Tibet, directed to more than 450 projects in 10 categories related to agriculture and animal husbandry unique to the region, including highland barley, yak-breeding, and traditional Tibetan medicine. More than 100 leading enterprises have emerged as a result, increasing the incomes of local farmers and herdsmen by RMB1.18 billion and benefiting 1.75 million people. The Tibet Autonomous Region is pressing forward with the certification of products of specified geographical origin, developing unique brands, and speeding up development of animal husbandry and agricultural products. To date, more than 10 farm and pastoral products of specified geographical origin have been certified by relevant government departments, including Pagri yak, Gamba sheep, Lhünzê black highland barley, Zayü kiwi fruit and Bomê Gastrodiaelata.


青海省着力打造粮油种植、畜禽养殖、果品蔬菜和枸杞沙棘“四个百亿元”产业。种植业“粮经饲”三元结构加快优化,全国草地生态畜牧业实验区建设稳步推进,现代农业示范区和产业园加快建设。截至“十二五”末,全省家庭农牧场发展到1879家,各类合作社发展到8876家,培育农牧业龙头企业451家。特色作物种植比重达到85%,农作物、畜禽和水产品良种覆盖率分别达到96%、62%和95%。无公害、绿色和有机农畜产品年生产总量达109万吨,农产品质量追溯体系逐步建立。东部特色种养高效示范区、环湖农牧交错循环发展先行区、青南生态有机畜牧业保护发展区和沿黄冷水养殖适度开发带“三区一带”农牧业发展格局初步形成。



Qinghai Province focuses on four industries, i.e., grain and oil crop, livestock and poultry, fruit and vegetable, and Chinese wolfberry and sea buckthorn. Each of these represents output value of more than RMB10 billion. The speed of optimization of a ternary structure of grain, cash and forage crops is picking up. The building of national grassland ecological animal husbandry pilot areas, modern agriculture demonstration zones and industrial parks are making headway. By the end of the 12th Five-year Plan, there were 1,879 family farms and pastures, 8,876 cooperatives of various types, and 451 leading agriculture and animal husbandry enterprises in Qinghai. Crops unique to the region represented 85 percent of planting by area, and the coverage rate of improved varieties of crops was 96 percent. The corresponding figures for improved breeds of livestock & poultry and aquatic products were 62 percent and 95 percent. The total annual output of eco-friendly green and organic agricultural and livestock products reached 1.09 million tons. An agricultural products quality traceability system has been implemented. A "three areas and one zone" development framework for agriculture and animal husbandry is in place; this refers to a characteristic planting and high efficiency demonstration area in the east, a circular economic development pilot area in a farming-pastoral ecotone area around the lake, an ecological and organic animal husbandry protection and development area in southern Qinghai, and a cold water moderate aquaculture development zone along the Yellow River. 


甘肃省甘南州实施藏区青稞基地及产业化工程和高原优质油菜、高原中药材(含藏药材)基地建设,加快发展特色种植业、经济林果业和林下产业。四川省甘孜州、阿坝州实施生态文明建设与发展生态农业有机结合,打造特色农牧业和特色林果业“两个百万亩”产业基地,以及花椒、森林蔬菜、木本药材等特色种植基地。云南省迪庆州高原特色农业种植面积达9.07万公顷,2017年产值达19亿元。



In order to accelerate the development of its growing industry unique to the region, forest & fruit industries, and the industry of byproducts of forests, Gansu Province's Gannan Prefecture focuses on the building of a highland barley base and barley industrialization project in the Tibetan-inhabited area, construction of the bases of highland quality rape and traditional Chinese medicine (including Tibetan medicine). Sichuan Province's Garze Prefecture and Aba Prefecture integrate ecological progress with ecological agriculture, construct bases for characteristic agriculture & animal husbandry and the forest & fruit industries each covering a total area of more than 100 million mu (133,400 ha.), and develop planting bases for Chinese prickly ash, forest vegetables, and woody herbs. In 2017, the area for growing crops unique to the locality in Yunnan Province's Deqen Prefecture reached 90,700 ha., turning out an output value of RMB1.9 billion.


绿色能源产业快速发展



Green energy develops rapidly.


青藏高原拥有丰富的水能、太阳能、地热能等绿色能源。近年来,青藏高原各省区基本构建了以水电、太阳能等为主体的可再生能源产业体系,保障了区域经济发展与环境保护的协调推进。



The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is rich in hydro energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, and other green energies. In recent years, the provinces and autonomous regions on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau have each built its own basic renewable energy industry system focusing on hydroelectricity and solar energy to support the coordinated development of the regional economy and environmental protection.


青藏高原多条大江大河流经高山峡谷,蕴藏着丰富的水能资源。西藏水能资源技术可开发量为1.74亿千瓦,位居全国第一,近年来建成了多布、金河、直孔等中型水电站,至2017年年底,全区水电装机容量达到177万千瓦,占全区总装机容量的56.54%。青海水能资源技术可开发量为2400万千瓦,建成了龙羊峡、拉西瓦、李家峡等一批大型水电工程,至2016年年底,青海省水电装机容量达1192万千瓦。四川省甘孜州和阿坝州水能技术可开发量约5663万千瓦,已建成水电总装机容量达1708万千瓦。



On the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, many big rivers, running through high mountains and canyons, boast significant potential for hydropower development. Tibet leads the country with 174 million kW of potential hydropower. In recent years, Tibet has built three medium-scale hydropower stations, i.e., Duobu, Jinhe and Drigung. By the end of 2017, Tibet's installed hydropower capacity was 1.77 million kW, accounting for 56.54 percent of the region's total installed capacity. 


With 24 million kW of exploitable hydropower resources, Qinghai Province has built three large hydropower projects, i.e., Longyang Gorge, Laxiwa, and Lijia Gorge. By the end of 2016, Qinghai's installed hydropower capacity was 11.92 million kW. 


Sichuan Province's Garze Prefecture and Aba Prefecture boast 56.63 million kW of exploitable hydropower, and 17.08 million kW of installed capacity in completed hydropower stations. 


青藏高原是世界上太阳能最丰富的地区之一,年太阳总辐射量高达5400-8000兆焦/平方米,比同纬度低海拔地区高50%-100%。青海省在柴达木盆地实施数个百万千瓦级光伏电站群建设工程,打造国际最大规模的光伏电站。至2016年年底,青海光伏发电装机容量达682万千瓦。2014年,西藏被国家列为不受光伏发电建设规模限制的地区,优先支持西藏开发光伏发电项目。到2017年年底,西藏光伏发电装机容量达79万千瓦。四川省甘孜州和阿坝州太阳能可开发量超过2000万千瓦,已建成投产35万千瓦光伏电站。



The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau area is a world-leading source of solar energy, with 5,400-8,000MJ per sq m of annual total solar radiation, 50-100 percent higher than low-elevation areas on the same latitude. Qinghai Province has launched several photovoltaic (PV) power station projects in the Qaidam Basin, each with a capacity of at least one million kW, and is planning to build the world's largest PV power station. By the end of 2016, Qinghai's installed PV capacity had reached 6.82 million kW. 


In 2014, Tibet received approval from the state to develop PV power stations without limit in scale of construction and enjoying priority state support. By the end of 2017, Tibet's installed PV capacity was 790,000 kW. 


Sichuan Province's Garze Prefecture and Aba Prefecture have more than 20 million kW of exploitable solar energy, and PV power stations with a total capacity of 350,000 kW are in service. 


旅游业助力绿色发展



Tourism boosts green development.


青藏高原独特的自然与人文景观,为旅游业发展提供了丰富资源。旅游发展带动了餐饮、住宿、交通、文化娱乐等产业的发展,促进了文化遗产保护、传统手艺传承和特色产品开发。旅游业已成为青藏高原实现绿色增长和农牧民增收致富的重要途径。



The unique natural and cultural landscape on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau provides rich potential for tourism, encouraging the catering, accommodation, transport, culture, and entertainment sectors, and protecting cultural heritage and the survival of traditional crafts, and the development of characteristic products. Tourism has become an important channel for green growth and higher incomes for farmers and herdsmen.  


青藏高原各省区在生态保护第一的前提下,大力发展特色旅游业,推进全域旅游,加快旅游基础设施和配套设施建设,提升旅游业开放水平,促进旅游业与文化、体育、康养等产业深度融合。西藏自治区依托自然保护区、国家森林公园、国家湿地公园建设发展生态旅游,打造全域旅游精品路线。四川省开发大九寨、大草原等旅游经济圈,推动阿坝州、甘孜州国家全域旅游示范区建设。甘肃省大力培育山水生态游、草原湿地游等,甘南州开展全域旅游无垃圾示范区建设,努力实现旅游业发展与生态环境保护双赢。



Giving top priority to ecological protection, provinces and autonomous regions on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are promoting characteristic and holistic tourism, building new tourism infrastructure and supporting facilities, and encouraging tourism to integrate with the cultural, sports and health industries. The Tibet Autonomous Region is developing ecological tourism and quality holistic tourist routes based on nature reserves, national forest parks, and national wetland parks. Sichuan Province focuses on developing the Jiuzhaigou-Ruoergai Grassland tourism economic circle, and holistic tourism demonstration areas in Aba Prefecture and Garze Prefecture. Gansu Province is cultivating landscape and prairie & wetland eco-tours, building garbage-free demonstration areas for holistic tourism in Gannan Prefecture, and coordinating growth in tourism with eco-environmental protection.


2017年,西藏自治区共接待游客2561.4万人次,旅游收入达379.4亿元,占当年全区国内生产总值的28.95%;青海省接待游客3484.1万人次,旅游收入达381.53亿元,占当年全省国内生产总值的14.44%。2017年,云南省迪庆州接待游客2676万人次,旅游收入达298亿元。甘肃省高原区域接待旅游人数、旅游收入连续7年保持两位数增长,2017年接待游客1105.6万人次,旅游收入达51.35亿元。



In 2017, Tibet hosted more than 25.61 million visitors and its revenues totaled RMB37.94 billion, representing 28.95 percent of the region's GDP; Qinghai received 34.84 million visitors and its revenues totaled RMB38.15 billion, representing 14.44 percent of the province's GDP. In 2017, Yunnan Province's Deqen Prefecture received 26.76 million visitors, providing revenues of RMB29.8 billion. The number of visitors to and the tourism revenues of the plateau region of Gansu Province have grown at a double-digit rate for the last seven years. In 2017, it received 11.06 million tourists providing revenues of more than RMB5.14 billion.  


五、科技支撑体系基本建立



V. Sci-tech Support System Is in Place


新中国成立以来,青藏高原科学研究经历了从局部到整体、从单学科研究到综合研究、从国内合作到国际合作的发展过程,现已形成较高水平的科研力量,建成了较为完备的生态与环境监测体系。在青藏高原社会经济发展和生态文明建设中,科技发挥着越来越重要的支撑作用。



Since the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, scientific research on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau has developed from partial, single-subject, domestic research to integrated, comprehensive research involving international cooperation. A team of high-caliber researchers has been established, together with an ecological and environmental monitoring system. Sci-tech is playing an ever more important supporting role in socio-economic development and ecological progress on the Plateau.


一流的科技队伍与科技成果



Top-notch researchers and sci-tech achievements


中国科技工作者从20世纪50年代开始对青藏高原局部地区开展短期、小范围的科学考察。20世纪70年代初至80年代末持续开展了大规模的综合科学考察,获得了数百万字的第一手科学考察资料,出版了包括43部专著的《青藏高原科学考察丛书》,成为第一套青藏高原百科全书。早在1978年全国科学大会上,中国科学院青藏高原综合科学考察队就获得国务院嘉奖。“青藏高原隆起及其对自然环境与人类活动影响的综合研究”于1987年获国家自然科学一等奖。20世纪90年代以来,结合青藏高原社会经济发展、生态环境建设的需求,开展了区域资源合理开发、生态环境恢复与治理、社会经济发展规划等研究工作,并对青藏高原的形成演化、影响等科学问题开展了相关学科的系统研究。第二次青藏高原综合科学考察研究将持续为高原生态文明建设提供全面科技支撑,聚焦水、生态、人类活动,着力解决青藏高原资源环境承载力、灾害风险、绿色发展途径等方面的问题。



Chinese sci-tech workers started short-term, small-scale scientific studies on part of the Plateau in the 1950s. Large-scale and comprehensive investigation work was carried out from the early 1970s to the late 1980s, generating first-hand materials totaling several million Chinese characters. Based on the materials, quite a number of books, including 43 monographs, on the Plateau research were published, making up the first Qinghai-Tibet Plateau encyclopedia. The team under the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) was commended by the State Council at the commended 1978 National Conference on Science. Comprehensive Research on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau's Rise and on Its Effects on Environment and Human Activities won the first prize of the 1987 National Award for Natural Science. Since the 1990s, to meet the needs of socio-economic development and environmental improvement on the Plateau, the Chinese government has launched research programs on the rational development of regional resources, ecological restoration and environmental governance, and planning for socio-economic development, and carried out systematic research in related subjects on the formation, evolution, and influence of the Plateau, and some other scientific issues. The second round of comprehensive investigation and research on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau will continue providing comprehensive sci-tech support for local ecological progress, with focus on water, ecology, and human activities, and with the goal of solving such problems as environmental carrying capacity, disaster risks, and approaches to green development.


60多年来,以中国科学院为主的科技队伍在青藏高原基础研究及应用研究方面取得许多开拓性科学成就。例如,刘东生院士在青藏高原隆起与东亚季风变化研究的基础上,建立了构造-气候科学学说;叶笃正院士提出青藏高原在夏季是热源的见解,开拓了大地形热力作用研究,创立了青藏高原气象学。这些创新成果推动了相关学科的发展,在区域社会经济发展、基础设施建设和生态环境建设中发挥了科技支撑作用。



Over the past 60 years or more, the sci-tech workers, with those from the CAS as mainstay, have made pioneering achievements in basic and applied research on the Plateau. For example, Academician Liu Dongsheng established the tectonics-climate theory based on his research on the Plateau's rise and East Asian monsoon climate change; Academician Ye Duzheng proposed that the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a thermal source in summer, and thus pioneered research on topography and thermodynamic activities and established the basics of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau meteorology theory. These innovative achievements have driven related subjects forward, and played a supporting role in the region's socio-economic development, infrastructure construction and environmental improvement.


目前,中国已拥有一支积累雄厚、学科配套、老中青相结合的从事青藏高原研究的科技队伍,包括40多位中国科学院院士和中国工程院院士、100多名“千人计划”和“万人计划”入选者、国家杰出青年基金获得者等领军人才。其中,刘东生、叶笃正和吴征镒分别荣获2003、2005和2007年国家最高科学技术奖,孙鸿烈荣获2009年“艾托里·马约拉纳-伊利斯科学和平奖”,姚檀栋荣获2017年“瑞典人类学和地理学会维加奖”,他们关于青藏高原的研究成就享誉国际。



China now boasts a sci-tech team engaged in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau research, with accumulated experience and expertise and supported by relevant subjects. The team has senior, middle-aged and young researchers, including more than 40 academicians of the CAS and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, more than 100 awardees of the Plan for Introducing Overseas High-level Talents (also called the Thousand Talents Plan) and the Special National Plan for High-level Talents (also called the 10,000 Talents Plan), and winners of the National Science Fund for Distinguished Young Scholars, and some other leading talent. Among them, Liu Dongsheng won the 2003 Highest Science and Technology Award of China, Ye Duzheng, the 2005 award, and Wu Zhengyi, the 2007 award; Sun Honglie won the Ettore Majorana-Erice Science for Peace Prize 2009; and Yao Tandong won the 2017 Vega Medal of Svenska Sällskapet för Antropologi och Geografi. These scientists are renowned around the world for their research achievements on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.


日益健全的生态与环境监测体系



An improved eco-environmental monitoring system


为监测青藏高原的生态环境变化,中国建立了较为完备的监测体系,包括中国生态系统研究网络、高寒区地表过程与环境监测研究网络,以及环保、国土、农业、林业、水利、气象等专业观测网络,形成了天地一体化的监测预警体系。中国生态系统研究网络在青藏高原及周边建有森林、草地、农田和荒漠等8个不同生态系统类型的观测台站,对高原生态系统变化开展长期的定位监测,揭示生态系统及环境要素的变化规律及其动因。高寒区地表过程与环境监测研究网络实现了对青藏高原地表环境变化过程的连续监测。“十二五”期间,气象部门在青藏高原增建了9部新一代天气雷达、18个高空气象观测站、123个国家级地面气象观测站、1361个区域气象观测站,发射了3颗风云系列气象卫星,完善了气象观测试验站网。西藏自治区和青海省目前分别建成国家地表水考核断面22个和19个、国控城市空气质量监测站点18个和11个。在一些重点区域,如三江源地区,相关部门构建了星-机-地生态综合立体监测与评估系统,建立了该区域时间序列最长、数据项最全的高质量数据库。生态环境监测网络的健全与数据质量的提高,促进了环境管理水平和效率大幅提升。



To monitor eco-environmental changes on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China has set up a relatively complete monitoring and early-warning system that integrates air and land networks, including a Chinese ecosystem research network, a network for monitoring and studying earth surface processes and environment in extremely cold areas of high altitude, and observation networks in environmental protection, land, agriculture, forestry, water conservancy, meteorology and some other fields. Under the Chinese ecosystem research network, observation stations for eight different ecosystems, including forest, grassland, farmland and desert, have been set up on the Plateau and surrounding areas, offering long-term located monitoring of changes of the Plateau ecosystem and thus revealing laws for and causes of changes in the ecosystem and environmental factors. With the network for monitoring and studying earth surface processes and environment in extremely cold areas of high altitude, researchers have performed continuous monitoring of environmental change on the Plateau surface. During the 12th Five-year Plan period, meteorological departments set up nine new-generation weather radars, 18 aerological observation stations, 123 state-level ground meteorological observation stations, and 1,361 regional meteorological observation stations, and launched three Fengyun meteorological satellites, thereby improving the network of meteorological observation and test stations. Tibet Autonomous Region has set up 22 state-level surface water inspection sections and 18 state-controlled air quality monitoring stations; the corresponding figures for Qinghai Province are 19 and 11. In some key areas, for example Sanjiangyuan, relevant departments have established a satellite-aircraft-earth integrated, stereoscopic monitoring and evaluation system, and a high-quality database spanning the longest time period and containing the most data items in this area. With improved ecological and environmental monitoring networks and enhanced data quality, environmental governance has improved greatly in terms of capability and efficiency.


科技支撑绿色发展



Sci-tech-supported green development


在青藏高原经济社会和生态文明建设中,科技的支撑作用日益显现。



Sci-tech is playing a more obvious supporting role in socio-economic development and ecological progress on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.


青藏铁路的建设和运营是科技创新引领绿色发展的标志性工程。青藏铁路格尔木-拉萨段(格拉段)全长1142公里,工程建设面临冻土消融、高寒缺氧、生态脆弱三大世界性工程难题。格拉段穿越连续多年冻土区546.4公里,基于大量观测数据和科技成果,科技人员设计采用了以桥代路、片石通风路基、通风管路基、碎石和片石护坡、热棒、保温板、综合防排水体系等措施,保障了铁路修建。青藏铁路穿越可可西里、三江源、色林错等多个国家级自然保护区,为保护藏羚羊等野生动物的生存环境,铁路全线建立了33处野生动物专用通道;为保护沿线生态环境,采取了沙害治理、植草绿化、草皮移植等一系列生态保护措施。青藏铁路建成运营后,多年冻土保持稳定,铁路两侧生态得到持续恢复,局部区域已接近甚至优于周边自然状态。青藏铁路建设成就在国际上获得高度评价。政府间气候变化专业委员会(IPCC)第四次和第五次《气候变化评估报告》认为,青藏铁路为其他国家和地区建设适应于气候变化的绿色铁路提供了成功案例。美国《科学》杂志2007年4月27日刊文指出,青藏铁路终将提升中国西部生态、社会、经济的可持续发展,它不仅是一个铁路工程,更是一个生态奇迹。“青藏铁路工程”获得2008年度国家科技进步奖特等奖。



The Qinghai-Tibet Railway is a landmark project, demonstrating the guidance given by sci-tech innovation to green development. The Golmud-Lhasa section extends 1,142 km, and construction workers were confronted with three extreme engineering problems: melting permafrost, hypoxia at high altitude, and a vulnerable ecology. As the section runs through permafrost regions for almost 546.4 km, sci-tech personnel designed and adopted such measures as replacing surface routes with viaducts, rubble ventilated embankments, ventiduct roadbeds, gravel and rubble revetments, heat conducting poles, insulation boards, and integrated waterproof and drainage systems. These were based on a great volume of observation data and previous technological achievements, ensuring the successful completion of this section. The Qinghai-Tibet Railway also runs through some national nature reserves, including Hoh Xil, Sanjiangyuan and Siling Co. To protect the living environment of Tibetan antelopes and other wild animals, 33 special passageways were added along the railway; to protect the ecological environment, a series of measures were taken, including sand hazard control, grass planting, and turf transplanting. Since the railway was brought into operation, the permafrost has been stable, and the ecology along the line is recovering, with some areas approaching or even surpassing the level of their surroundings. The achievements of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway have earned international acclaim. As the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change stated in its fourth and fifth assessment reports, the Qinghai-Tibet Railway offers a successful example for other countries and regions in building "green" railways adapted to climate change. Science magazine in the United States published an article on April 27, 2007, pointing out that the railway will "ultimately promote the sustainable ecological, social, and economic development of western China", describing it as not only an engineering accomplishment, but also "an ecological miracle". The Qinghai-Tibet Railway Project won the special award of the 2008 National Award for Scientific and Technological Progress.


在三江源区退化生态系统的治理过程中,科学技术发挥了强有力的支撑作用。三江源“黑土滩”草地恢复技术体系,使“黑土滩”治理取得突破,相关科技成果获国家科技进步奖二等奖。牧草品种的原种籽栽培技术,为典型退化草地治理和人工种草提供了优质草种。



Sci-tech has played a strong supporting role in controlling the ecosystem degradation of the Sanjiangyuan region. A technical system for restoring degraded alpine meadows (Heitutan, or black soil land) has achieved big breakthroughs in relevant researches, and the achievements won a Class-II prize in the National Award for Scientific and Technological Progress. A technique for cultivating breeder seeds of forage grass has provided high-quality seeds for controlling typical degraded pastures and artificial grass planting.


藏医药是维护高原人民健康的宝贵财富,也是青藏高原发展特色经济的重大优势资源。为促进藏医药标准化、现代化和产业化发展,科技部门大力推动藏药材人工种植及野生抚育等关键技术研究与示范,积极开展藏医药基础及应用研究,不断完善藏医药标准和检验监测体系。在疾病防治、药物研发、养生保健等领域培育了一批创新型企业,打造了一系列藏药品牌产品。



Traditional Tibetan medicine is a precious health treasure for people living on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and a major resource strength for the Plateau to develop a local specialty economy. To develop Tibetan medicine in a standard, modern and industrialized way, sci-tech departments have promoted research on and demonstration of key techniques, such as artificial planting and wild tending of Tibetan medicinal materials. They have carried out basic and applied research on Tibetan medicine, and kept improving the standards and the inspection and monitoring system of Tibetan medicine. They have fostered a group of innovative enterprises in prevention and treatment of diseases, research and development of drugs, and health preservation, and created a series of branded Tibetan medicine products.


六、生态文化逐渐形成



VI. A Developing Culture That Values Ecological Awareness


随着青藏高原生态文明建设的不断推进,人们的思想观念和生活方式发生了深刻变化,保护生态环境就是保护美好家园已经成为社会共识,生态文化自信日益增强。



With advances in ecological conservation on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, there has been a profound change in how people think and live. It has become widely recognized that protecting the environment means protecting our common home, with growing confidence in our eco-culture.


生态文明理念日益深入人心



Ecological awareness is taking root.


生态文明建设过程中,青藏高原诸省区通过加大环境保护宣传、建设文化基础设施、开展教育培训、提升民众参与度、表彰先进人员、创建生态节日等,使生态文明理念逐步普及。“靠山吃山、靠水吃水”的传统观念逐渐被“青山绿水是金山银山、冰天雪地也是金山银山”的新观念取代;尊重自然、顺应自然、保护自然的理念得到推崇。



To promote ecological progress on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, the relevant provinces and autonomous regions have taken active measures to increase public awareness of eco-conservation, such as strengthening public campaigns on environmental protection, building cultural infrastructure, organizing education and training sessions, encouraging public participation, rewarding role models, and introducing eco-themed holidays. In the past, people would exhaust their natural environment for food and wealth, but now they are beginning to understand that green mountains and clear water, and even snow and ice, are valuable assets that represent our true wealth. The idea of respecting nature, following nature's law, and protecting nature has become popular.


“十二五”期间,西藏自治区开展重点公共文化设施建设项目,实施了综合文化体育设施工程、流动电影服务工程、农家书屋工程、村级广播信息资源共享工程、村卫生室医疗设备完善工程、太阳能公共照明工程等建设工程,建成文化广场1616个;实现了地(市)群艺馆,县(区)综合文化活动中心、新华书店,乡镇综合文化站和农家书屋全覆盖。同时,开展年度节能宣传周和低碳日宣传活动,增强生态环境保护意识。在文明城市、文明村镇等各类精神文明创建中,将生态环保作为评选表彰各类先进典型的重要依据。拉萨市通过实施“环境立市”战略,提升城市环境质量,并持续开展“家在社区、五美家庭”等群众性精神文明创建活动;持续开展净化环境、保护生态等志愿服务。在广大农牧区开展“美丽乡村文明养成”精神文明活动;组建村(居)志愿服务工作队,开展打扫村庄卫生、植树造林、水源及动植物保护等活动。



During the 12th Five-year Plan period, Tibet Autonomous Region built a series of key public cultural facilities, and initiated such programs as cultural and sports facilities, movie circuits, village libraries, sharing village-level broadcasting resource, upgrading village clinic equipment, and solar lighting for public use. During the period, 1,616 cultural plazas were opened in Tibet, which now boasts an extensive network of cultural facilities, including public arts galleries at the prefecture/city level, cultural centers at the county/district level, Xinhua bookstores, township cultural stations, and village libraries. The autonomous region has also carried out "energy-conserving week" and "low-carbon day" campaigns to enhance the public's awareness of environmental protection, which has also become an important basis for evaluating the performance of villages, towns, and cities when selecting role models in this regard. Emphasizing the importance of the environment, Lhasa City is striving to improve its urban environment; it encourages the public, with families as units, to take part in related community activities, and organizes volunteers to clean the streets and protect the natural ecology. Similar campaigns have also been rolled out in farming and pastoral areas, where villagers and residents are grouped as volunteers to keep their villages clean, plant trees, and protect water sources and wildlife.


甘肃省甘南州开展生态文明先行示范区建设。通过实行严格的源头保护制度、损害赔偿制度、责任追究制度等,完善环境治理和生态修复机制,强化生态文明建设的引领导向作用。并将生态环保理念纳入全州干部在线学习教育内容,编写发行面向全州中小学生、党政干部、农牧民等不同层次的《甘南州生态文明教育读本》,开通环保网站,播放环保公益广告,推送手机环保短信,举办“生态立州”有奖征文,强化各级干部群众生态环保理念,提高人们对生态保护重要性的认识,营造爱护环境的良好风气。



Gannan Prefecture in Gansu Province is working to be a model area of ecological conservation by enacting strict measures on water source protection, damage compensation and accountability. Much is being done to improve the environmental management and ecological remediation systems, and strengthen the guiding role of ecological progress. To enhance public awareness of environmental protection, the prefecture has included eco-education in the online study materials for its officials. It has also compiled various eco-education readings to distribute to elementary and secondary school students, Party and government officials, and farmers and herdsmen, opened a website on ecological education, aired eco-themed public-service advertisements, pushed text messages to mobile phones, and held writing contests on conservation.


青海省印发《关于开展“文明青海”建设活动的实施意见》,开展“清洁三江源,保护母亲河”“青海湖生态保护”等大型志愿服务活动,倡导移风易俗和生产生活新风尚。算好“绿色账”,走好“绿色路”,打好“绿色牌”的环保观念和“生态似水、发展如舟”的生态意识逐步深入人心。



Qinghai Province has issued the Opinions on Promoting Green Lifestyles in Qinghai, and held major campaigns to clean the Sanjiangyuan area and protect the environment of Qinghai Lake. The government encourages the public to abandon outdated habits and embrace new and green lifestyles, enhance ecological awareness, and correctly understand the interdependent relationship between good ecology and sound development.


绿色生活方式日益形成



Green lifestyle is bedding in.


随着生态文明建设的不断深入,高原农牧民“人畜混居”、燃薪烧粪等生活方式逐步发生变化,绿色建筑、绿色能源、洁净居住、绿色出行日益成为受欢迎的生活方式。



As ecological awareness spreads on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, fewer farmers and herdsmen keep livestock in their houses or burn firewood and dung for heating. Green housing, green energy, living on clean energy, and green travel have become increasingly popular lifestyle habits.


青藏高原诸省区积极推进新能源多元化利用,以太阳能为主的新能源已广泛应用于取暖、做饭、照明、灌溉、通讯等生产生活的各个方面。被动式太阳房是西藏太阳能利用较早的技术之一,20世纪80年代开始在阿里、那曲、拉萨等地市推广应用。太阳房能基本满足冬季采暖要求,改善了生活环境,提高了生活质量。房屋节能环保程度已成为农牧民建房时的重要决策因素。截至2017年年底,以水能、太阳能、沼气为主的清洁能源已达到西藏自治区电力总装机容量的87%,推广太阳灶40多万台,太阳能热水器45万平方米,被动式太阳房约42万平方米,降低了农牧民对传统燃料的依赖。



On the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, new energy is being used for a diversity of purposes. Solar energy and other new energy have been widely applied in heating, cooking, lighting, irrigation, telecommunications, and other areas of daily life and work. In Tibet, passive solar housing is one of the first solar technologies introduced – it first appeared in Ali, Naqu and Lhasa in the 1980s. In addition to providing heating in winter, solar housing offers a better home environment and raises people's living standards. Energy conservation and environmental protection have become important factors for farmers and herdsmen on the Plateau to consider when they build houses. By the end of 2017 clean energy – mainly water power, solar energy and biogas – contributed 87 percent of the total installed capacity of electricity in Tibet Autonomous Region. There were more than 400,000 solar stoves in use, with solar water heating systems covering 450,000 sq m of floor space and passive solar housing some 420,000 sq m. All of this is reducing the public's reliance on traditional fuels.


青海省实施省级农牧区被动式太阳能暖房建设工程,推广太阳灶、太阳能热水器、太阳能电池、户用风力发电机,推动“以电代煤”“以电代粪”等项目。截至2017年年底,青海省累计推广太阳灶10.22万台、太阳能热水器1.28万台、太阳能电池9200套;建设被动式太阳能暖房1.31万套,示范面积达130.5万平方米。电热炕、光伏供热等取暖方式逐步替代了燃烧牛粪和煤块的传统方式,减少了污染排放,改善了生活环境,提高了生活水平,同时降低了对草地的过度索取,促进了草地生态系统的恢复和改善。



In Qinghai, provincial-level programs have been initiated in farming and pastoral areas to promote passive solar housing, solar stoves, solar water heaters, solar batteries, and household wind turbines, and to replace the burning of coal and dung with electricity for heating. By the end of 2017, support from the province had resulted in the use of 102,200 solar stoves, 12,800 solar water heaters, and 9,200 sets of solar batteries; 13,100 passive solar housing units had been built as demonstration projects, totaling 1,305,000 sq m. Electric and photovoltaic heating have gradually replaced dung and coal-burning, contributing to reduced pollutant emissions, a better home environment, and higher living standards. This has also reined in excess exploitation of grasslands, beneficial to the remediation and improvement of the grassland ecosystem.


青藏高原诸省区通过建设生态文明小康村,开展改厕、改圈、改房等活动,实施生活垃圾收集转运、生活污水收集处理、饮用水水源地保护、秸秆综合利用、噪声综合治理、人畜粪便污染综合治理等工程,减少了垃圾乱陈、私搭乱建、乱采乱挖、随意焚烧等不文明现象,住房、饮水、出行等居住环境和生活条件明显改善,基本实现了干净、整洁和便利。



In villages on the Plateau, a number of measures have been taken to improve the environment. By building modern-standard toilets, livestock pens, and housing, and undertaking domestic garbage collection and disposal, domestic wastewater collection and treatment, drinking water source protection, efficient crop stalk utilization, noise abatement, and human and livestock feces pollution control, the local governments have effectively addressed such problems as random dumping of garbage, illegal construction or extension of houses, unauthorized mining, and open-air burning of crop stalks. People on the Plateau now enjoy better housing, drinking water and transport, and a clean environment and convenient facilities.


2017年,共享单车进入西藏拉萨,迅速成为老百姓出行的选择,形成了美丽的城市风景线;拉萨、西宁等高原城市新能源汽车数量稳步提升,珠穆朗玛峰、纳帕海等自然保护区核心区已实现新能源汽车运营服务。绿色交通、文明旅游成为新的出行方式。



In 2017, shared bicycle services entered Lhasa. These bicycles quickly became a favored choice for the locals when they needed to go somewhere, adding flavor to the city's charms. In Lhasa, Xining and other high-altitude cities, the number of new-energy vehicles keeps increasing; in core protection areas such as the Qomolangma and Napa Lake transport services are provided by new-energy vehicles. Green transport and tourism have become the preferred options of the public.


生态文化自信持续增强



Confidence in the ecological culture is getting enhanced.


青藏高原美丽的风景,良好的生态本底,以及生态文明建设取得的成就,极大地提升了当地人民群众的生态文化自信。美丽乡村、文明校园、文明家庭等多种形式的生态文明建设活动,使高原人民的精神面貌焕然一新。人们参与生态文明建设的积极性、主动性不断增强,幸福感、获得感不断提升,对拥有青山绿水和冰天雪地倍感自豪。



The beauty of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, its sound ecological base, and the progress made in conservation have significantly boosted local people's confidence in their ecological culture. Eco-themed public campaigns in villages, on campus and in communities have breathed fresh air into the people's lives and lifted their spirit. People are increasingly active in joining ecological efforts, and are more content with life and have a greater sense of gain. They are proud of the ice and snow as much as the green mountains and clear water.


至2017年,西藏自治区围绕建设美丽西藏,建成自治区级10个生态县、173个生态乡镇、1924个生态村;林芝市巴宜区被授予全国第一批生态文明建设示范县。青海省建成1200个高原美丽乡村,西宁市成为国家森林城市。四川省阿坝州创建省级生态县1个、国家级和省级生态乡镇16个和50个,省级生态村30个。云南省迪庆州建成了45个州级生态文明村。甘肃省甘南州分别创建国家级和省级生态乡镇2个和14个,国家级和省级生态村14个和11个。这些生态文明建设成就显著改善了人居环境和民生条件,增强了高原人民保护好最后一片净土的信心。



By 2017, 10 counties, 173 towns and townships, and 1,924 villages in Tibet had been designated as models of eco-preservation at the provincial level. Bayi District in Nyingchi City became one of the first state-level model counties for ecological progress. In Qinghai, 1,200 villages were honored "beautiful plateau villages", and Xining became a state-level forest city. In Aba Prefecture, Sichuan Province, one county was selected as the provincial eco-progress model, 16 towns were commended as eco-progress models at state level, 50 towns and 30 villages at provincial level. In Deqen Prefecture of Yunnan, 45 eco-progress villages have been selected as eco-progress models at prefectural level. In Gannan Prefecture of Gansu Province, the figures were two towns and 14 villages at national level, and 14 towns and 11 villages at provincial level. These achievements have not only improved people's living conditions and daily life, but also enhanced their commitment to safeguarding the serenity of the Plateau.


2017年,青海可可西里在联合国教科文组织第41届世界遗产委员会会议上被成功列入《世界遗产名录》,成为中国面积最大、平均海拔最高的世界自然遗产地。世界自然保护联盟在评估报告中说,可可西里一望无垠,几乎没有受到现代人类活动的冲击,美景“令人赞叹不已”。可可西里申遗成功提高了生活在高原上的人们保护自然、关爱生命的意识,进一步激发了人们建设生态文明的自豪感、责任感。



In 2017, at the 41st session of the World Heritage Committee, Hol Xil of Qinghai Province was included in UNESCO's World Heritage List, making it China's largest and highest natural heritage site. In its assessment report, the World Conservation Union took note of Hol Xil's expansive natural beauty – free of human activity – describing it as "an amazing scene to behold". Hol Xil's inclusion in the World Heritage List has succeeded in raising public awareness of nature and wildlife, further boosting their sense of responsibility and pride in ecological conservation.


结束语



Conclusion


经过长期不懈努力,青藏高原生态文明建设取得了显著成效,促进了高原生态安全屏障功能的稳定与区域可持续发展,提升了人民福祉。



Through years of rigorous effort, marked progress has been made in ecological conservation on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The function of the Plateau as an eco-safety barrier has been further consolidated, with increased levels of regional sustainability and public wellbeing.


同时,青藏高原生态文明建设仍然面临诸多挑战。突出表现在:受全球变化影响,冰川退缩、冻土消融、灾害风险加大的威胁依然存在;经济发展过程中,保护与发展的矛盾仍然突出。巩固和提升生态文明建设成果,任务依然艰巨。



That said, the Plateau still faces many ecological challenges. The main ones are glacier retreat, melting permafrost, and other growing disaster risks due to global warming, and prominent contradictions between protection and development in the course of economic growth. We still face an arduous task in consolidating and furthering our ecological achievements.


在今后的青藏高原生态文明建设中,中国将不断改革生态环境监管体制,促进生态文明制度创新;科学调控人类活动,实施生态保护修复和环境保护重大工程,优化生态安全屏障体系,着力解决突出的生态与环境问题;完善低碳循环发展的经济体系和安全高效的能源体系,转变生产生活方式,推进绿色发展;健全高原生态文化建设平台体系与功能,弘扬生态文明理念。



In the future, China will continue to work on the following measures: 


• reform its environmental monitoring system, 


• promote institutional reform in ecological conservation, 


• efficiently control human activity, 


• restore the ecology and environment through major programs, 


• improve the eco-safety barrier system, 


• strive to solve pressing ecological and environmental problems, 


• refine the low-carbon and circular economy and safe and efficient energy system, 


• transform the approach to daily life and work, 


• promote green development, 


• improve the functions of the plateau eco-culture platform, and


• spread the idea of ecological conservation.


青藏高原是大自然赐予中国人民和全人类的财富,保护好青藏高原的生态环境,是中国人民的责任。中共中央总书记习近平在中国共产党第十九次全国代表大会上指出:“我们要建设的现代化是人与自然和谐共生的现代化,既要创造更多物质财富和精神财富以满足人民日益增长的美好生活需要,也要提供更多优质生态产品以满足人民日益增长的优美生态环境需要。”新时代青藏高原生态文明建设,是“建设美丽中国”的重要内容。中国人民有信心建设更加美丽的青藏高原,努力实现人与自然的和谐共处。



The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is a wealth endowed by nature to the Chinese people and humanity as a whole. It is the Chinese people's responsibility to protect the ecology of the Plateau. At the 19th National Congress of the CPC, General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee Xi Jinping pointed out, "The modernization that we pursue is one characterized by harmonious coexistence between man and nature. In addition to creating more material and cultural wealth to meet people's ever-increasing expectation of a better life, we need also to provide more quality ecological goods to meet people's ever-growing demands for a beautiful environment." Ecological progress on the Plateau in the new era is an important component of the Beautiful China initiative. The Chinese people are committed to making the Plateau an even more beautiful place, and to realizing harmonious coexistence between man and nature.




(Source: Xinhua)


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