II. National Defense Policy

China pursues a national defense policy that is defensive in nature. The Constitution of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and the National Defense Law of the PRC, which is enacted in accordance with the Constitution, specify the tasks of the armed forces of the PRC as being to consolidate national defense, resist aggression, defend the motherland, safeguard the people's peaceful labor, participate in national construction and serve the people wholeheartedly.

China has always attached primary importance to safeguarding state sovereignty, unity, territorial integrity and security, and has been working hard for a peaceful international and a favorable peripheral environment for China's socialist modernization drive. The development and powerfulness of China will constitute no threat to anyone, but will rather promote the world peace, stability and development. Never to seek hegemony is the Chinese people's solemn pledge to the world.

China's defense policy has the following main aspects:

- Consolidating national defense, resisting aggression, curbing armed subversion, and defending state sovereignty, unity, territorial integrity and security. China's efforts in defense modernization are purely for self-defense. China spares no effort to avoid and curb war, and to solve international disputes and questions left over by history through peaceful means. However, in view of the fact that hegemonism and power politics still exist and are further developing, and in particular, the basis for the country's peaceful reunification is seriously imperiled, China will have to enhance its capability to defend its sovereignty and security by military means.

- Building and consolidating national defense independently and through self-reliance. China stresses self-reliance as the basis for safeguarding state security, and insists on making national defense policies and development strategies independently. China does not seek alliance with any country or bloc of countries, nor does it participate in any military bloc. China builds its defense science, technology and industry and develops its weaponry through self-reliance.

- Implementing the military strategy of active defense. Strategically, China pursues a principle featuring defensive operations, self-defense and gaining mastery by striking only after the enemy has struck. Such defense combines efforts to deter war with preparations to win self-defense wars in time of peace, and strategic defense with operational and tactical offensive operations in time of war. While basing them-selves on existing weaponry and carrying forward their fine traditions, China's armed forces seek to adapt to profound changes in the world's military sphere, and prepare for de-fensive operations under modern, especially high-tech, conditions.

- Building a lean and strong military force the Chinese way. In line with the general requirements of being qualified politically, competent militarily, and having a fine work style, a strong sense of discipline and adequate logistical support, the Chinese armed forces strive to strengthen their overall development and form a revolutionized, modernized and regularized people's army with Chinese characteristics. China adheres to building the armed forces by enhancing their quality, strengthening the armed forces by relying on science and technology, and managing the armed forces according to law, and is endeavoring to transform its armed forces from a numerically superior to a qualitatively superior type, and from a manpower-intensive to a technology-intensive type, as well as to train high-quality military personnel and improve the modernization level of weaponry in order to comprehensively enhance the armed forces' combat effectiveness.

- Combining the armed forces with the people and practicing self-defense by the whole people. China adheres to the concept of people's war under modern conditions, and exercises the combination of a streamlined standing army with a powerful reserve force for national defense. The reserve force and militia are maintained at an appropriate scale, with an optimized structure and an enhanced level of training. In the light of the principle of combining peacetime footing with wartime footing and the army with the people, and having reserve soldiers among the people, China works hard to popularize and promote defense education, perfect the defense mobilization system and enhance the defense mobilization capacity.

- Subordinating national defense to, and placing it in the service of, the nation's overall economic construction, and achieving their coordinated development. Developing the economy and strengthening national defense are two strategic tasks in China's modernization efforts. The Chinese government insists that economic development be taken as the center, while defense work be subordinate to and in the service of the nation's overall economic construction. Meanwhile, along with economic development, the state strives to enhance its national defense strength, to effec2tively support the armed forces in their efforts to improve their quality and to form a mechanism which enables national defense and economic development to promote each other and develop in harmony.

- Safeguarding world peace, and opposing aggression and expansion. China resolutely opposes hegemonism and power politics, and combats the policies of war, aggression and expansion. China also objects to any country imposing in any form its own political system and ideology on other countries. China does not seek military expansion, nor does it station troops or set up military bases in any foreign country. China opposes arms race, and supports the international community in its efforts to promote world and regional peace, security and stability.

China possesses a small number of nuclear weapons entirely for self-defense. China undertakes not to be the first to use nuclear weapons, and not to use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states. China does not participate in any nuclear arms race, and never deploys any nuclear weapons beyond its borders. China maintains a small but effective nuclear counterattacking force in order to deter possible nuclear attacks by other countries. Any such attack will inevitably result in a retaliatory nuclear counterstrike by China. China has always kept the number of its nuclear weapons at a low level. The scale, composition and development of China's nuclear force are in line with China's military strategy of active defense. China's nuclear force is under the direct command of the Central Military Commission (CMC). China is extremely cautious and responsible in the management of its nuclear weapons, and has established strict rules and regulations and taken effective measures to ensure the safety and security of its nuclear weapons.

Settlement of the Taiwan issue and realization of the complete re-unification of China embodies the fundamental interests of the Chinese nation. The Chinese government upholds the basic principle of "peaceful reunification, and one country, two systems" for settling the Taiwan issue, carrying forward the eight propositions on the devel-opment of relations between the two sides of the Taiwan Straits and the promotion of the peaceful reunification of China. The Chinese government has consistently adhered to the one-China principle and will never give in or compromise on the fundamental issues concern-ing state sovereignty and territorial integrity. The change of the Taian regional leaders can not change the fact that Taiwan is a part of Chinese territory. Settlement of the Taiwan issue is entirely an internal affair of China. The Chinese government firmly opposes any country selling arms to Taiwan, or entering into military alliances in any form with Taiwan, as well as outside interference in any way. The Chinese government will do its utmost to achieve peaceful reunification, and advocates settling differences through dialogues and negotiations on the basis of the one-China principle. However, if a grave turn of events occurs leading to the separation of Taiwan from China in any name, or if Taiwan is invaded and occupied by foreign countries, or if the Taiwan authorities refuse, sine die, the peaceful settlement of cross-Straits reunification through negotiations, then the Chinese government will have no choice but to adopt all drastic measures possible, including the use of force, to safeguard China's sovereignty and territorial integrity, and achieve the great cause of reunification. The "Taiwan independence" means provoking war again, and fomenting splits means relinquishing peace across the Straits. The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) unswervingly takes the will of the state as its supreme will and the national interests as its supreme interests. It has the absolute determination, confidence, ability and means to safeguard state sovereignty and territorial integrity, and will never tolerate, condone or remain indifferent to the realization of any scheme to divide the motherland.