VI. International Security Cooperation
International security cooperation is playing an increasingly important role in maintaining world and regional peace and stability. The Chi-nese government pays great attention to and actively participates in international security cooperation, and advocates the development of international security cooperation on the basis of the UN Charter, the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, and other universally recog-nized norms of international relations.
Conducting dialogue and cooperation with Asia-Pacific countries is an important content of China’s policy concerning Asia-Pacific security, and a component part of its policy of good-neighborliness and friend-ship. China persists in building a good-neighborly relationship and partnership with its neighbors and strengthens regional cooperation constantly. Over the past two years, China has worked hard to boost the formation and development of the Shanghai Cooperation Organi-zation (SCO), and continued to support and participate in the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), Conference on Interaction and Confi-dence-Building Measures in Asia (CICA), Council on Security Cooperation in the Asia-Pacific Region (CSCAP), Northeast Asia Cooperation Dialogue (NEACD) and other activities for multilateral security dialogue and cooperation, thus playing a positive role in deepening regional security cooperation with Asian characteristics.
In June 2001, China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan founded the SCO. This organization is a regional multilat-eral cooperation body established on the basis of the “Shanghai Five.” Since its founding, it has signed and published in succession the Shang-hai Convention on Combating Terrorism, Separatism and Extremism, the joint communiqué of the defense ministers, the statement of the prime ministers, the statement of leaders of the law-enforcement and security departments, and the joint statement of the foreign ministers. At the SCO St. Petersburg Summit held in June 2002, the heads of state of the six countries signed three important legal and political documents — the Charter of the SCO, the Agreement on a Regional Anti-Terrorist Agency and the Declaration of the Heads of State of the SCO Member Countries. The SCO has initiated a new security con-cept, a new pattern for regional cooperation, and state-to-state relations of a new type, strengthened trust and cooperation in the military field, beefed up substantive cooperation in the fight against terrorism, separatism and extremism, and reached a consensus on mu-tual assistance in preventing and peacefully solving international conflicts. The SCO propagates the “Shanghai Spirit” that features mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality, consultation, respect for diverse civilizations and seeking common development, and actively promotes the establishment of a fair and rational new international political and economic order, thus advancing regional security and stability.
China endorses the CICA aim and principle of strengthening trust and cooperation and safeguarding regional security, and has developed con-structive and friendly cooperation with all its member countries. In June 2002, the first CICA summit meeting passed the Alma-Ata Document and the Declaration on Eliminating Terrorism and Promot-ing Dialogue Among Civilizations. The CICA has scored important achievements in its activities.
China supports the ARF in its continuous advance toward its set goal. China has consistently taken an active part in the ARF foreign minis-ters’ meetings, senior officials’ meetings and unofficial meetings. China has undertaken the project of the ARF ocean information web-site and formally opened it to service; attended the ARF experts’ group meeting on confidence-building measures against transnational crimes; submitted a country report on the question of transnational crimes; and regularly submitted annual security prospect reports to the ARF. At the Eighth ARF Foreign Ministers’ Conference, held in 2001, China de-clared its readiness to support the ARF’s efforts to gradually develop dialogue and cooperation in non-traditional security fields, and reiter-ated its proposal on reporting on, and sending personnel to observe, multilateral joint military exercises. In May 2002, China submitted to the ARF Senior Officials’ Conference the Document Concerning China’s Stand in Strengthening Cooperation in Non-Traditional Secu-rity Fields. At the Ninth ARF Foreign Ministers’ Conference, held in July 2002, China submitted the Document Concerning China’s Stand in Regard to the New Security Concept, emphasizing the need to jointly cultivate a new security concept, enhance trust through dia-logue, and promote security through cooperation. The Joint Declara-tion of ASEAN and China on Cooperation in the Field of Non-Traditional Security Issues released in November 2002, initiated full cooperation between ASEAN and China in the field of non-traditional security issues. In September 2002, China held the ARF seminar on military logistics outsourcing support in Beijing.
Cooperation between ASEAN and China, Japan and the Republic of Korea (10+3) is an important channel for East Asian leaders to ex-change views on strengthening cooperation in the region, and is conducive to enhancing mutual understanding, trust and mutually beneficial cooperation among East Asian countries. China values and actively participates in this cooperation. It advocates that it should be expanded into all-directional cooperation on the existing basis, that dialogue and cooperation in the political and security fields be gradually developed on the principles of achieving unity through consultation and making steady advance, and that this cooperation be started with cooperation in the non-traditional fields of security. Af-ter more than four years’ development, this cooperation has made marked progress.
The Chinese armed forces have participated in security dialogue and cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. In January 2002, Chinese offi-cers observed the naval mine clearance exercise sponsored by Singapore in the West Pacific region. In April 2002, Chinese officers observed the submarine search and rescue exercise sponsored by Ja-pan in the West Pacific region. In May 2002, China sent officers to observe the “Cobra Gold” joint military exercises staged by the United States, Thailand and Singapore. China intends to selectively and gradually participate in more multilateral joint military exercises in the non-traditional fields of security in the future.
In recent years, terrorist activities have notably increased, and constitute a real threat to world peace and development. The “September 11” terrorist attack, which caused a great loss of lives and property, has aroused the universal concern of the international community. China, too, is a victim of terrorism. The “East Turkistan” terrorist forces are a serious threat to the security of the lives and property of the people of all China’s ethnic groups, as well as to the country’s social stabil-ity. On September 11, 2002, the UN Security Council, in response to a common demand from China, the United States, Afghanistan and Kyrgyzstan, formally included the “East Turkistan Islamic Move-ment” on its list of terrorist organizations. The Chinese government has always resolutely opposed and condemned all forms of terrorism, and has actively adopted effective measures to fight against terrorist activities.
The Chinese government is of the view that the international commu-nity should strengthen dialogue and consultation and develop cooperation, join hands in preventing and fighting against interna-tional terrorist activities, and make efforts to eradicate the root cause of terrorism. The fight against terrorism requires conclusive evidence, clear targets and conformity with the purpose and principles of the UN Charter, and the universally acknowledged norms of international laws. In this regard, the leading role of the UN and its Security Council should be brought into full play, and all actions taken should be con-ducive to the long-term interest of preserving regional and world peace. Terrorism should not be confused with a specific nation or re-ligion, neither should dual standards be adopted in the fight against terrorism. The international community should make common efforts to resolutely condemn and attack terrorism whenever and wherever it occurs, whoever it is directed against and in whatever form it appears. In fighting terrorism, it is necessary to address both its symptoms and root cause, and adopt comprehensive measures, especially in solving the question of development, narrowing the North-South gap, and ending regional conflicts.
China supports and has conscientiously implemented a series of reso-lutions on the anti-terrorism issue passed by the United Nations and its Security Council, and has submitted to the Security Council Anti-Terrorism Commission a report on the implementation of Se-curity Council Resolution No. 1373. China has acceded to the International Convention on Stopping Terrorist Explosions, and signed the International Convention on Severing Financial Aid to Terrorism. China has acceded to 10 and signed another one of the 12 international anti-terrorism conventions. China has also held anti-terrorism consul-tations respectively with the USA, Russia, UK, France, Pakistan and India, and has taken an active part in the work of the Security Council Anti-Terrorism Commission. China actively helped the Shanghai Conference of APEC Leaders in bringing about the anti-terrorism statement, motivated the heads of government, defense ministers, lead-ers of law-enforcement and security departments, and foreign ministers of the SCO member nations in issuing a common statement, and ac-tively supported the SCO in establishing a permanent regional anti-terrorist organization. China and Kyrgyzstan conducted a joint anti-terrorism military exercise in October 2002. China pays great attention to international anti-terrorist cooperation in the financial field. Although China is not a member of the ad hoc working group for combating the financial action of money laundering, it consistently supports the group’s work. China has given the group a full introduc-tion of its measures for anti-terrorism in the financial field.
Participation in UN Peace-keeping Operations
As a permanent member of the UN Security Council, China has al-ways valued and supported the UN in its efforts to play a positive role in safeguarding international peace and security under the guidance of the purpose and principles of the UN Charter. China adopts an active attitude toward the reform of peace-keeping operations, and hopes that further efforts will be made to strengthen the role of the UN in peace-keeping operations and to make these operations more efficient. China supports the active measures taken by the UN Secretariat in this regard, and welcomes the progress made by the UN General Assembly and the Security Council in deliberating the Prasmy’s Report on Re-forming the UN’s Peace-keeping Operations.
Since its first dispatch of military observers to the UN peacekeeping activities in 1990, the PLA of China has successively taken part in 10 UN peace-keeping operations. So far it has sent more than 650 mili-tary observers, liaison officers, advisors or staff officers and 800 (in two batches) engineering officers and men to the UN peacekeeping operations. At present, 53 Chinese military observers are still serving in 6 regions, and 2 staff officers working in the UN peacekeeping de-partment. Four Chinese servicemen have laid down their lives, and dozens have been wounded in UN peace-keeping operations.
After its first dispatch of 15 policemen to UN peace-keeping opera-tions in January 2000, the Chinese government has sent in succession 198 civilian policemen to serve with UNTAET and UNMIBH.
In May 1997, the Chinese government decided, in principle, to take part in the UN’s stand-by arrangements for its peace-keeping opera-tions. In January 2002, China formally participated in the Class-A stand-by arrangements mechanism for the UN peace-keeping opera-tions, and it is ready to provide the UN peace-keeping operations with engineering, medical, transportation and other logistical support teams at appropriate times. China is able to provide these operations with 1 UN standard engineering battalion, 1 UN standard medical team and 2 UN standard transportation companies.
Military Exchanges and Cooperation
The PLA has actively conducted military exchanges and cooperation with other countries. The areas of its external contacts are being gradually expanded, with the content of the contacts increasingly richer and forms more flexible and diversified.
China has established military relations with more than 100 countries, and over 100 military attaché’s offices in Chinese embassies abroad. Meanwhile, more than 70 countries have set up military attaché’s of-fices in China. Over the past two years, the PLA has carried out over 130 important exchange projects, sent high-level delegations to over 60 countries, and hosted over 90 important military leaders’ delega-tions from some 60 countries. From May to September 2002, Chinese naval ships undertook their first round-the-world navigation, visiting 10 countries, covering a total of over 30,000 nautical miles. The PLA’s foreign military academic exchanges and technical cooperation have also constantly developed in breadth and depth. It has conducted ex-change visits of more than 100 delegations or groups of military experts with several dozen countries, and the scale of exchanges of military students has expanded step by step. Between October and November 2001, China held the Third Symposium on International Issues at the National Defense University, with officers from 18 coun-tries participating. In October 2002, the Fourth Symposium was held at the National Defense University, with officers from 31 countries participating.
China actively promotes military relations with countries around the world. The relations between the armed forces of China and Russia, under the guidance of the Sino-Russian Treaty of Good Neighborliness, Friendship and Cooperation, have been strengthened and developed continuously, and high-level contacts between the armed forces of the two sides have maintained their momentum. In September 2001, the special meeting of the China-US Military Maritime Consultation Agreement was held in Guam, which led to the thawing of the once suspended Sino-US military relations. In October 2002, it was agreed between the heads of state of both countries that the military ex-changes should be resumed. Sino-Japanese military ties were resumed at the end of 2001. Meanwhile, China-EU military relations have de-veloped smoothly. Chinese military delegations at various levels have made successful military visits on invitation to many countries in Northeast, Southeast, South and Central Asia regions. China’s fron-tier commands have exchanged visits with their counterparts in neighboring countries. China continues to provide a number of devel-oping countries with aid in personnel training, equipment, logistical materials and medical care, and will seek to widen the scope of con-tacts in the future. It has also intensified its efforts for contacts with West Asian and African countries, and sustained military contacts with Latin American countries.
The PLA has repeatedly sent personnel to attend the multilateral secu-rity conferences in the Asia-Pacific region, the Asia-Pacific Region Defense Authority Officials Forum, the NEACD, the ARF, the West Pacific Naval Forum, and other activities for multilateral security. The PLA has also held security consultations and meetings with the de-fense or other military departments of countries such as Australia, France, Germany, India, Japan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, Russia, Thailand, UK and USA, thereby enhancing mutual trust and understanding with them.