II. Targets and Principles


Main guidelines for tackling the population and development issue: Taking into consideration its basic national conditions, including big population, inadequate per-capita resources and low level of economic and scientific development, China would persistently follow its own path in tackling the issue of population and development. It would draw on other countries' managerial expertise and scientific achievement and tackle its own population and development issue in accordance with its own specific conditions. China would persistently follow its sustainable development strategy and bring about a coordinated development of population, economy, society, resources and environment so as to realize national modernization with comprehensive human development. It would combine the universal principle of human rights with its national conditions, give top priority to the rights to subsistence and development, and facilitate the people's enjoyment of a higher standard of basic rights and freedom in civil, political, economic, social and cultural areas. China respects different cultural background, religious beliefs, and moral concepts. Taking into full consideration the unity between priorities and conditions, rights and obligations, China has formulated and implemented population and development plans and policies to ensure that all social members enjoy an equal opportunity for development.

Targets for the national population and development program

--By 2005, China is to have its population within 1.33 billion (excluding the population of the Hong Kong and Macao Special Administrative Regions and Taiwan Province). The annual average natural growth of its population should not exceed 9бы. Comprehensive medical and reproductive health services are to be offered. Informed choice of contraceptive measures is practiced. The maternal mortality rate is to be reduced to 42 per 100,000 with infant mortality dropping to 31бы. China would consolidate and improve its achievements made in the nine-year compulsory education. Priorities would be given to popularizing the nine-year compulsory education in poverty-stricken areas and areas where ethnic minorities live in compact communities. Social needs for senior middle school education in urban and some rural regions would be met, with junior middle school enrollment rate reaching over 90% and higher education enrollment rate further increased. Social security system is to be basically established in urban and some rural areas.

--By 2010, China is to have its population within 1.4 billion and the Chinese people will lead a much better life with an obvious improvement of its population quality. The period of time for the people to receive education would be among the longest in developing countries. The people would have access to basic medical health care and reproductive health services. Informed choice of contraceptive measures is to be practiced widely and the sex ratio at birth is expected to gradually become normal. China would redouble its efforts to solve the problem of ageing of population. A nationwide social security system would basically take shape by then.

--By the mid-21st century, the total population would reach its peak number of 1.6 billion to be followed by a gradual decrease. The population quality and health level would have an overall improvement, with senior middle school education and higher education popularized nationwide. An efficient and comprehensive social security system will be in place. There will be a more rational population distribution and employment structure. The urbanization would be greatly enhanced. The Chinese people would have a much better life with their per-capita income equaling that of moderately developed nations. With a higher level of its social culture, China will have realized its modernization and achieved a coordinated development of population, economy, resources and environment. 12. Basic principles for solving the population and development issue:

--Population and development are tackled in a unified way. When speeding up the economic and social development, with priorities given to science and education, China is to further improve the people's living standard and their general quality. The issue of population should be included in the national plan for social and economic development. Various policies and measures should be formulated and implemented to make the population growth in keeping with socio-economic development, resource utilization and environmental protection. The existing family planning policy should be upheld to and improved.

--The population issue is to be solved in a comprehensive way. The management system for the population and family planning program should be further improved in line with the socialist market economy, with legal, educational, economic and administrative measures combined in tackling the population problem.

--The Government guidance is to be combined with the people's wishes. When adopting policies, the Government needs to give due consideration to both the national and individual interests, the long-term and short-term interests, and the local interests as well as the interests of the whole. Administrative measures should be integrated with mass work so as to promote the voluntary participation of the masses.

--The nationwide promotion is based upon specific guidance for different localities. Rural and under-developed areas are given priorities in economic development, while the exemplary role of cities and developed regions is given full play in further boosting the development of different regions. --It is essential to promote the human-centered development in a comprehensive way. People's status as masters of the society must be respected and their legal rights protected. It is necessary to integrate the family planning program with economic development. Assistance especially quality service should be offered to the people in their endeavors to have happy and more civilized families.