Main guidelines for tackling the population and development issue:
Taking into consideration its basic national conditions, including
big population, inadequate per-capita resources and low level of
economic and scientific development, China would persistently follow
its own path in tackling the issue of population and development.
It would draw on other countries' managerial expertise and scientific
achievement and tackle its own population and development issue
in accordance with its own specific conditions. China would persistently
follow its sustainable development strategy and bring about a coordinated
development of population, economy, society, resources and environment
so as to realize national modernization with comprehensive human
development. It would combine the universal principle of human rights
with its national conditions, give top priority to the rights to
subsistence and development, and facilitate the people's enjoyment
of a higher standard of basic rights and freedom in civil, political,
economic, social and cultural areas. China respects different cultural
background, religious beliefs, and moral concepts. Taking into full
consideration the unity between priorities and conditions, rights
and obligations, China has formulated and implemented population
and development plans and policies to ensure that all social members
enjoy an equal opportunity for development.
Targets for the national population and development program
--By 2005, China is to have its population within 1.33 billion
(excluding the population of the Hong Kong and Macao Special Administrative
Regions and Taiwan Province). The annual average natural growth
of its population should not exceed 9бы. Comprehensive medical
and reproductive health services are to be offered. Informed choice
of contraceptive measures is practiced. The maternal mortality rate
is to be reduced to 42 per 100,000 with infant mortality dropping
to 31бы. China would consolidate and improve its achievements
made in the nine-year compulsory education. Priorities would be
given to popularizing the nine-year compulsory education in poverty-stricken
areas and areas where ethnic minorities live in compact communities.
Social needs for senior middle school education in urban and some
rural regions would be met, with junior middle school enrollment
rate reaching over 90% and higher education enrollment rate further
increased. Social security system is to be basically established
in urban and some rural areas.
--By 2010, China is to have its population within 1.4 billion and
the Chinese people will lead a much better life with an obvious
improvement of its population quality. The period of time for the
people to receive education would be among the longest in developing
countries. The people would have access to basic medical health
care and reproductive health services. Informed choice of contraceptive
measures is to be practiced widely and the sex ratio at birth is
expected to gradually become normal. China would redouble its efforts
to solve the problem of ageing of population. A nationwide social
security system would basically take shape by then.
--By the mid-21st century, the total population would reach its
peak number of 1.6 billion to be followed by a gradual decrease.
The population quality and health level would have an overall improvement,
with senior middle school education and higher education popularized
nationwide. An efficient and comprehensive social security system
will be in place. There will be a more rational population distribution
and employment structure. The urbanization would be greatly enhanced.
The Chinese people would have a much better life with their per-capita
income equaling that of moderately developed nations. With a higher
level of its social culture, China will have realized its modernization
and achieved a coordinated development of population, economy, resources
and environment. 12. Basic principles for solving the population
and development issue:
--Population and development are tackled in a unified way. When
speeding up the economic and social development, with priorities
given to science and education, China is to further improve the
people's living standard and their general quality. The issue of
population should be included in the national plan for social and
economic development. Various policies and measures should be formulated
and implemented to make the population growth in keeping with socio-economic
development, resource utilization and environmental protection.
The existing family planning policy should be upheld to and improved.
--The population issue is to be solved in a comprehensive way.
The management system for the population and family planning program
should be further improved in line with the socialist market economy,
with legal, educational, economic and administrative measures combined
in tackling the population problem.
--The Government guidance is to be combined with the people's wishes.
When adopting policies, the Government needs to give due consideration
to both the national and individual interests, the long-term and
short-term interests, and the local interests as well as the interests
of the whole. Administrative measures should be integrated with
mass work so as to promote the voluntary participation of the masses.
--The nationwide promotion is based upon specific guidance for
different localities. Rural and under-developed areas are given
priorities in economic development, while the exemplary role of
cities and developed regions is given full play in further boosting
the development of different regions. --It is essential to promote
the human-centered development in a comprehensive way. People's
status as masters of the society must be respected and their legal
rights protected. It is necessary to integrate the family planning
program with economic development. Assistance especially quality
service should be offered to the people in their endeavors to have
happy and more civilized families.