The President of the People’s Republic of China is the head of state for China.
I. The position and function of the President
The President represents the People’s Republic of China.
II. The election of the President
Citizens of the People’s Republic of China who have the right to vote and to stand for election and who have reached the age of 45 are eligible for election as President.
2. The election and removal process
The President of the People’s Republic of China is elected by the National People’s Congress.
Normally one candidate to the Presidency is nominated by the Presidium of the National People’s Congress for election.
The National People’s Congress has the power to remove the President.
3. Term of the Presidency
The President serves for a term of five years and can serve no more than two consecutive terms.
4. Filling the vacancy of the President
In the event that the office of the President falls vacant, the Vice President succeeds to the office of the President.
In the event that the office of the Vice President falls vacant, the National People’s Congress shall elect a new Vice President to fill the vacancy.
In the event that the offices of both the President and the Vice President fall vacant, the National People’s Congress shall elect a new President and a new Vice President. Prior to such election, the Chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People’s Congress shall temporarily act as the President.
III. The basic functions and powers of the President
1. Domestic functions and powers
(1) Promulgating statutes
After laws are adopted by the NPC or its Standing Committee, they are signed by the President to promulgation before they become effective.
The President does not enjoy the power of veto and has to promulgate all laws adopted by the NPC or its Standing Committee.
Laws shall not become effective before being signed for promulgation by the President.
(2) Issuing orders
According to decisions of the NPC or its Standing Committee, the President appoints or removes the Premier, Vice Premiers, State Councilors, Ministers in charge of ministries and commissions, the Auditor-general and Secretary-general of the State Council; confers state medals and titles of honorary; issues orders of special amnesty; proclaims martial law; proclaims a state of war’ and issues mobilization orders.
2. Functions and powers in foreign affairs
(1) Receiving foreign diplomatic representatives
The President receives foreign diplomatic representatives on behalf of the People’s Republic of China.
(2) Appointing and Recalling plenipotentiary representatives abroad
In pursuance of the decisions of the Standing Committee of the NPC, the Presidents appoints or recalls plenipotentiary representatives abroad.
(3) Ratifying or abrogating treaties and important agreements
In pursuance of the decisions of the Standing Committee of the NPC, the President ratifies or abrogates treaties and important agreements concluded with foreign states.
Treaties and agreements concluded with foreign states by the State Council or its organs are promulgated by the President, upon decision of the NPC or its Standing Committee on whether to approve or annul them.