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During the golden age of science and technology development that China has enjoyed since the 1980s, many key technical problems in national economy and socio-economic development have been solved through a combination of sci-tech research, the introduction of foreign technologies and technological upgrading. Since 1981, Chinese research has produced 648,000 important scientific and technological outcomes, some 20 percent of which were at advanced world level. In 2006, registered sci-tech outcomes numbered 33,644, of which 30,103 related to applied technology.

The number of China's theses published in international periodicals ranks fourth in the world. According to the statistics reported in October 2006, there were 153,374 theses in 2005 from China embodied in the three world-renowned search systems, viz. Science Citation Index, Engineering Index and Index to Scientific & Technical Proceedings, accounting for 6.9 percent of the world total, of which the theses on nanotechnology take the lead in number in the world.

Reflecting growth in innovation, patent applications are increasing. There were 3,334,000 applications filed in 2006, covering invention, utility model and external design. The State Intellectual Property Office received 573,000 applications and granted over 268,000, 20.3 percent and 25.2 percent more than in 2005 respectively.

Established and put into operation by China, "Artificial Sun," the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), is a superconducting experimental nuclear fusion device and the world’ first all-superconducting Tokamak

"Ocean No.1", China's chief oceanographic research vessel, returning to port after a global marine scientific exploration, Qingdao, January 2006

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