V. Accelerating the Progress of Energy Technologies

Science and technology is the primary productive force and the main motive force of energy development. China sets great store by the development of energy science and technology, and has narrowed its technological gap with the developed countries in the energy industry and effectively promoted the overall development of the energy industry. The Chinese government promulgated the Outline of the National Plan for Medium- and Long-term Scientific and Technological Development (2006-2010) in 2005, which gives top priority to the development of energy technologies, and, in line with the principle of making independent innovations and leapfrogging development in key fields, shoring up the economy and keeping in step with leading trends, stresses accelerating progress of energy technologies and strives to provide technological support for the sustainable energy development.

Following the laws and traits of scientific and technological development, China actively develops and popularizes advanced and applicable technologies in the fields of energy saving, substitution, recycling and pollution control, and is creating a favorable policy environment for the progress of energy technologies. The Chinese government strives to gradually establish a market-oriented system for technological innovation, in which enterprises play the leading role and which combines the efforts of enterprises, universities and research institutes. It vigorously promotes R&D and the application of advanced energy technologies, guides enterprises to expedite technological progress and enhance energy utilization efficiency through the market mechanism. It strengthens the training of talented people in energy science and technology, and improves policies, laws and regulations, and technical standards in this respect to create favorable conditions for the development of energy technologies.

-- Popularizing energy-saving technologies. China gives priority to the development of energy-saving technologies, with focus on key technologies in the high energy-consumption sectors, to enhance the utilization efficiency of primary and end-use energy resources; implements the policy outline on energy-saving technologies and guides social investment into the application of energy-saving technologies; places emphasis on R&D of energy-saving technologies and equipment for industry, transport and construction, and the application of technologies connected with integrated renewable energy systems and energy-saving construction materials; strengthens energy measurement, control, supervision and management; and actively fosters an energy-saving technological service system.

-- Spurring innovation in key technologies. China encourages the development of clean coal technology, reinforces R&D of advanced technologies, such as coal gasification, processing and conversion, popularizes advanced power generation technologies, including integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), supercritical and ultra-supercritical power generation, and large-scale circulating fluidized bed (CFB), and develops coal gasification-based poly-generation technology. China attaches particular importance to mastering the third-generation pressurized-water reactor (PWR) nuclear power generation and high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR) for industrial experimental technologies. It actively develops technologies in connection with prospecting for and exploitation of petroleum and gas resources under complicated geographical conditions, and highly efficient exploitation of low-grade petroleum and gas resources; encourages the development of technology for substitutes of energy resources, gives priority to the development of technologies for large-scale utilization of renewable energy; and steadily improves the technology of power transmission at voltages of ¡À 800 kv DC and 1,000 kv AC and power grid safety technology.

-- Enhancing equipment manufacturing level. The equipment manufacturing industry is the foundation of the development of energy technologies. China gives impetus to the technological progress of the equipment manufacturing industry through key state projects. The Chinese government encourages the development of comprehensive excavation machinery in coal mining, large comprehensive mining, hoisting, transport and washing equipment for underground coal mining, and heavy-duty open-pit mining machinery. It supports the development of complete sets of large equipment for coal chemicals as well as R&D of coal liquefaction and gasification, and coal-to-olefin conversion equipment, the development of high-efficiency and low-pollution power generation equipment, high-efficiency coal-fired power generation units, hydropower and pumped-storage units, heavy-duty gas turbines, PWR nuclear power generation units with a capacity of one million kw, high-power wind-driven generators, and superhigh-power transmission and transformation machinery. It encourages the development of oil and natural gas prospecting and drilling equipment and support equipment for large offshore oil projects, crude oil carriers with a capacity of 300,000 dwt, liquefied natural gas carriers and high-power diesel engines.

-- Strengthening frontier technology research. Frontier technology, as a new potential driving force for energy development, can blaze the way for the leapfrogging development of energy industry and technologies. China focuses on research into conversion from fossil, biomass and renewable energy resources to hydrogen, and high-efficiency hydrogen storage, transmission and distribution technology. It also conducts research into the technology for the manufacturing of basic and key components of fuel cells, integration of fuel cell stacks, fuel cell power generation and automotive fuel cell power systems, and strives to make breakthroughs in the technology for the end-use energy conversion, storage and combined cooling, heating and power projection of fossil energy-based micro-miniature gas turbine systems. Meanwhile, the country is speeding up research into the engineering and core technology of gas-cooled faster reactors (GFR), and technology for developing magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) and natural gas hydrate technology.

-- Developing basic scientific research. Basic research is the source of independent innovation and it determines the strength and potential of energy development. China concentrates on research into the basic theories of the high-efficiency and low-pollution utilization and conversion of fossil energy, key principles of high-efficiency heat-work conversion, high-efficiency energy saving and storage, basic technology for large-scale utilization of renewable energy, and basic theories concerning technology for large-scale utilization of nuclear and hydrogen energy resources.