VII. Enhancing International Cooperation on Climate Change
Based on the "mutually beneficial, pragmatic and effective" principle, China actively participates in and promotes international cooperation in the field of climate change, playing a positive role. In recent years, China's president and premier have both stated China's position on international cooperation on climate change at multilateral and bilateral exchanges, including the outreach session of the G8 summit, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) meeting, East Asia Summit (EAS) and Boao Forum for Asia, energetically promoting global action to cope with climate change.
Over a long period of time China has actively participated in and sup-ported the activities of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and Kyoto Protocol, working hard to accelerate the effective implementation of the two documents. Chinese experts have energetically taken part in the activities of the Inter-governmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), making contributions to the composing of relevant reports. China earnestly performs its duties stipulated by the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol, released China Initial National Communications on Climate Change in 2004, and issued the National Plan for Coping with Climate Change and China's Special Sci-Tech Campaign to Cope with Climate Change in June 2007.
As to multilateral cooperation, China is an official member of the Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum, Methane-to-Market Partner-ship and Asia-Pacific Partnership on Clean Development and Climate. It is also a participant in the meetings of the leaders of the G8 and the five major developing countries on climate change, and Major Economies Meeting on Energy Security and Climate Change. At the APEC meeting, China moved the proposal of the Asia-Pacific Network for Sustainable Forest Management and Rehabilitation, and hosted the International Forum on Climate Change and Sci-Tech Innovation. China strives for the enhancement of international exchanges and mutual trust in the sphere of climate change, as well as the establishment of an impartial and effective global mechanism to cope with climate change.
In bilateral exchanges, China has set up a dialogue and cooperation mechanism on climate change with the European Union, India, Brazil, South Africa, Japan, the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom and Australia, focusing on cooperation in the field of climate change. China has all along helped African countries and small developing is-land states to improve their ability to cope with climate change. China's African Policy makes it clear that China will actively promote China-Africa cooperation in climate change. The Chinese government has sponsored two study courses on the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), aiming to improve the abilities of African and Asian developing countries to carry out CDM projects.
China energetically develops cooperation in research on climate change with foreign governments, international organizations and re-search institutes, covering scientific problems, deceleration and adaptation, policies and measures to cope with climate change, including China's trend of climate change, impacts of climate change on China, adaptation measures and actions adopted by China's farming and forestry departments, China's water resources management, and China's comprehensive management of coastal zone and marine eco-systems. This cooperation extends to the cost for China to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and China's potential capability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, China's laws and regulations and policy research to cope with climate change, as well as studies, development and demonstrations of technologies regarding low-carbon energies. China actively participates in corresponding international scientific and technological cooperation programs, including the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) under the framework of the Earth System Science Partnership (ESSP), International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change (IHDP), intergovernmental Group on Earth Observations (GEO), Global Climate Observation System (GCOS), Global Ocean Observation System (GOOS), Array for Real-Time Geostrophic Oceanography (ARGO), and International Polar Year. In addition, China enhances information exchanges and resource sharing with relevant international organizations and institutes.
China energetically impels and participates in technology transfer un-der the UNFCCC framework, works hard to build a favorable domestic environment for international technology transfer, and has submitted a technological demand list. China believes that technology transfer under the UNFCCC framework should not solely rely on the market. The key is for the governments of developed countries to make efforts to reduce and eliminate obstacles to technology transfer, and adopt pilot and incentive policies and measures, thus playing an effective role in the promotion of technology transfer. For key technologies under study concerning climate change, it is necessary to take advantage of the joint efforts of the international community and lose no time in making breakthroughs, and such technologies should be shared by all countries in the world.
China attaches importance to the CDM's active role in facilitating its own sustainable development, and is willing to make contributions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by joining CDM programs. Through international cooperation, China has conducted systematic research on CDM, providing a scientific base for the making of inter-national rules and domestic policies, as well as providing valuable in-formation for the benefit of all sides. China has carried out a host of activities to improve the abilities of government departments, enterprises, academic institutions, advisory bodies and financial institutions to develop CDM projects. It has improved the relevant domestic rules, and promulgated the Measures for the Operation and Management of Clean Development Mechanism Projects in China. Up to July 20, 2008, China had had 244 CDM cooperation projects successfully registered with the United Nations, which were expected to reduce carbon dioxide emission by 113 million tons annually. CDM projects have effectively boosted the development of China's renewable energy, accelerated the improvement of energy intensity, and greatly enhanced the awareness of the seriousness of climate change on the part of relevant government departments, enterprises, organizations and individuals. China holds that CDM, as a comparatively effective and successful cooperation mechanism, should continue to be implemented after 2012. However, efforts should be made to promote fairness, transparency, simplicity, certainty and environmental completeness during the implementing of projects, and to encourage the transfer of advanced technology to developing countries. The host country should play a more important role in developing CDM projects.