VII. Scientific and Technological Innovations in Nuclear Emergency Preparedness
China has worked out a national plan for nuclear emergency preparedness work, which has clearly defined the targets, mechanism, training of professionals, main tasks and safeguard measures for scientific and technological innovation in the field of nuclear emergency preparedness. New achievements have been made, and some of them have even reached the international advanced level.
Development of nuclear accident consequence evaluation and decision-making support system. By insisting on the combination of technology introduction and self-reliant innovations, China's relevant universities and R&D institutes have made achievements in such technological areas as accident source term estimation, wind field diagnosis and forecast, airborne radioactive material dispersion, radioactive material dispersion in water bodies, nuclear radiation medicine emergency classification and treatment, radioactive dose estimation, etc., which have provided technical support for the state in decision making related to national nuclear emergency preparedness.
Basic research in nuclear emergency preparedness. Research in nuclear emergency preparedness technologies and management for third and fourth generation of nuclear power technologies, such as HPR1000, AP1000 (US Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor), EPR (European Pressurized Water Reactor), High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors and fast reactors has been carried out. Studies are continuing on important subjects such as simultaneous common-mode failure for multiple units, severe accident source term analysis for inland nuclear power plants, inter-regional nuclear emergency preparedness, nuclear fuel cycle facility emergency preparedness and emergency response to nuclear and radiological terrorist attacks, and some achievements have been made, uplifting as a whole the level of China's basic technologies concerning nuclear emergency preparedness.
Research and development of nuclear emergency special equipment. Priority is given to the R&D (research and development) and SI (system integration) of equipment for nuclear emergency radiation monitoring, radiation protection, medical treatment and decontamination. Independently developed equipment includes vehicle (vessel)-mounted detection equipment, aviation radiation monitoring system, radiation monitoring and accident response robots and vehicle (vessel)-mounted nuclear emergency command system, and nuclear emergency medical assorting and monitoring platform and medical support system. Each level of nuclear emergency rescue team is equipped with such equipment and systems. All gate-frame walk-through radiation detectors used by China Customs are developed by domestic enterprises.
Research in nuclear emergency preparedness information technology. Studies on the standardization of nuclear emergency preparedness data collection and transfer have been conducted, and a nationwide nuclear emergency preparedness resources management system has been established and efforts are constantly made to improve it. Development of a nuclear emergency preparedness information system, innovative modularization of nuclear emergency preparedness plan, automation of response process, visualization of organization and command and auxiliary scientific decision-making have led to the integration of routine management with emergency response, which has also helped enhance nuclear emergency preparedness response capabilities and organizational efficiency.
Research in nuclear emergency preparedness medical treatment technology. Research on the technology of diagnosis and treatment for acute radiation injuries has been carried out, and guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and rescue for acute radiation injuries have been developed. Key technical and promotional application research in unexpected nuclear radiation events has resulted in the development of methods for rapid biological dose assessment for nuclear radiation accidents applicable for the general public, which has helped optimize non-myeloablative stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) combined transplantation treatment for severe and extremely severe bone marrow acute radiation patients. A number of breakthroughs in the treatment of radiation diseases have been achieved, leading to a reduction of casualties of nuclear radiation accidents to the maximum extent. With primary and clinical research on the treatment of radiation injuries by use of mesenchymal stem cells, a new therapy using transplantation of combined MSC and hematopoietic stem cells for severe radiation sickness has been created. The research achievement “Establishment and Application to Treat Radiation Diseases by Using Somatic Stem Cells” won a first prize for national science and technology improvement. A “three-level handling and four-level treatment” systemized nuclear emergency medical rescue capabilities development model has been developed by China's military medical research organizations.
Research in public risk communication and psychological assistance. Research in mass psychological assistance techniques under circumstances of unexpected event (accident) has been conducted, and relevant psychological intervention models have been established, and countermeasures, criteria and implementation guidelines have been proposed. In view of the characteristics of nuclear radiation, Q&A publications in relation to nuclear accident protection and applied books on medical countermeasures in case of nuclear and radiological accidents geared toward the public have been compiled.
Innovative research in nuclear emergency environmental meteorology. A numerical prediction system of China's meteorological environmental emergency response is being developed and improved. Following the upgrading of the meteorological service system for nuclear and hazardous chemicals leakage and improvement of atmospheric dispersion modeling by way of technology import and self-reliant R&D, the global mode resolution has been enhanced to 30km from about 85km, and medium-scale model resolution has been enhanced to 10km from 15km, realizing a more detailed and precise simulation and prediction of pollutant dispersion.