VI. Nuclear Emergency Preparedness Exercises, Drills, Training and Public Communication
China attaches great importance to nuclear emergency preparedness exercises, drills, training and public communication, and continuous efforts have been made to enhance the capabilities of nuclear emergency preparedness organizations at various levels to cope with nuclear accidents, popularize knowledge of nuclear safety and emergency preparedness, create an environment conducive to facilitating nuclear energy development and build society-wide confidence in the country's nuclear energy sector.
Organizing nuclear emergency preparedness exercises. The policies and principles, organization, formats, classifications, frequency, safeguard preparation and implementation procedures for China's nuclear emergency preparedness have been clearly defined in such documents as Regulations on Emergency Measures for Nuclear Accidents at Nuclear Power Plants, Contingency Measures for Unexpected Events, Guideline on Emergency Exercises for Unexpected Events and Regulations on Nuclear Emergency Preparedness Exercises. To cater to the needs of nuclear energy development, national-level nuclear emergency preparedness joint exercises shall be conducted on a regular basis; provincial-level on-site and off-site joint exercises for nuclear emergency preparedness shall be conducted once every two to four years by the relevant provinces (autonomous regions or centrally administered municipalities); operators of nuclear installations shall conduct comprehensive exercises once every two years and special exercises for different purposes every year, with higher frequency for those which have three or more generating units. Prior to the initial fuel loading, an on-site and off-site joint exercise shall be organized by the provincial-level nuclear emergency management organization where the relevant nuclear power plant is located. National-level nuclear emergency joint exercises with the code names “Shendun-2009” and “Shendun-2015” have been conducted and observed by officials and experts from Japan, ROK, France, Pakistan and the IAEA, involving the participation of about 6,000 persons on the two occasions.
Establishing a three-level nuclear emergency preparedness training system. The state nuclear emergency preparedness management organization shall be in charge of training for nation-wide nuclear emergency preparedness management personnel; nuclear emergency preparedness management organizations at the provincial (regional and municipal) level shall be in charge of training for nuclear emergency preparedness personnel within their respective jurisdictions; operators of nuclear installations shall be in charge of providing professional skills training for their own staff in the field of nuclear emergency preparedness. Since the Fukushima accident, China has organized more than 110 training sessions for different levels of nuclear emergency preparedness organizations, attended by a total of 10,000 people. China's nuclear emergency preparedness management personnel and technical professionals have all attended nuclear emergency preparedness trainings of different levels and disciplines.
Reinforcing public communication and information disclosure about nuclear emergency preparedness. China attaches great importance to public communication and information disclosure regarding nuclear emergency preparedness by developing relevant regulations on the principles of transparency, objectivity, trustworthiness and scientific accuracy. Each level of nuclear emergency preparedness organization has established a special nuclear emergency preparedness publicity team to publicize national policies on nuclear energy, nuclear safety and nuclear emergency preparedness to the public and to enhance transparency of nuclear energy development to ensure the public's right to supervise nuclear safety and access to information on nuclear emergency preparedness and response. Since 2013 a number of nationwide nuclear emergency preparedness publicity activities with the theme “Joining Efforts to Establish Defense on Nuclear Emergency and for Nuclear Safety, and to Foster the Scientific Development of Nuclear Energy Sector” have been held, arousing extensive attention both at home and abroad. In January 2015 publicity activities targeting domestic and foreign audiences were successively conducted by nuclear-related organizations to mark the 60th anniversary of the launch of China's nuclear industry. In December 2015 the domestic and foreign media were invited to visit Chinese nuclear power enterprises for the well-received campaign “Boosting Nuclear Energy Development for the One Belt and One Road Initiative,” showcasing to Chinese audience the advanced nature of China's nuclear power technology, the safety and reliability of nuclear power, standardization of nuclear power management and adequacy of nuclear emergency preparedness, producing positive social repercussions. Nuclear-related enterprises, universities and colleges, and relevant organizations have conducted a variety of publicity activities in relation to the popularization of nuclear-related scientific knowledge in a bid to foster an atmosphere conducive to the safe and efficient development of nuclear energy.
As the Hong Kong and Macao special administrative regions (SAR) are adjacent to Guangdong Province, the public in Hong Kong and Macao pay close attention to the nuclear energy development in China's mainland. Since 1992 Guangdong Province and the Hong Kong SAR have reached consensus on a number of issues in relation to nuclear emergency preparedness associated with the Daya Bay and Ling Ao nuclear power plants in Guangdong. The state nuclear emergency management organ has, on more than one occasion, organized promotional activities in conjunction with Guangdong Province and the Hong Kong SAR to further enrich the contents of their collaborative mechanism on nuclear emergency preparedness, refine the communication platform for nuclear emergency preparedness between Guangdong and Hong Kong, and respond to public concerns in a timely manner to allay any misgivings. The relevant departments of the central government have held special training sessions focusing on various disciplines in conjunction with the departments concerned of Hong Kong and Macao SAR governments with a view to raising the professional level of the local public, therefore contributing positively to maintaining the prosperity and stability of both Hong Kong and Macao.
As the safe use of nuclear energy is a major issue bearing on the safety of both life and property of people across the Taiwan Straits, both sides of the Straits lay great store by it. In October 2011 the Association for Relations across the Taiwan Straits and Straits Exchange Foundation signed the Cross-straits Nuclear Power Safety Cooperation Agreement. Under the framework of this agreement, a communication mechanism has been put in place between the two sides across the Straits on nuclear emergency matters, and positive achievements have reaped in expanded exchange and cooperation in such areas as regulations and standards concerning nuclear power safety, emergency reporting on nuclear power plant accidents, environmental radiation monitoring for nuclear power plants, and emergency response and preparations for nuclear power plant accidents.