II. Guidelines and Policies for Nuclear Emergency Preparedness
As a large developing country, China has laid down basic guidelines and policies applicable to nuclear emergency preparedness through enactment of laws, administrative regulations and issuance of government decrees in the course of nuclear energy development.
The basic objectives of nuclear emergency preparedness in China are: scientific coordination according to law, timely and effectively coping with nuclear accidents, maximally controlling/mitigating or eliminating accidents, minimizing human casualties/fatalities and property damages, protecting the public and the environment, maintaining social order and safeguarding the people's safety and national security.
The basic policy of nuclear emergency management in China is: constant vigilance, versatile compatibility, unified command, active coordination, public safeguard and environmental protection.
― Constant vigilance, versatile compatibility. Nuclear emergency organizations at all levels should stay alert and vigilant at all times in readiness to respond to possible nuclear accidents at any time. A nuclear emergency preparation and response system featuring coordination of dedicated and standby systems, rational deployment of resources, combination of routine exercises and actual emergency response, and integration of civilian and military resources is to be established and perfected. Nuclear emergency work must be planned and deployed in an overall manner together with other activities and implemented compatibly with them.
― Unified command, active coordination. Operators of nuclear installations shall coordinate and direct on-site nuclear accident emergency response actions in a unified manner, and governments at all levels shall coordinate and direct nuclear accident emergency response actions within their respective jurisdictions in a unified manner. Under the unified organization and direction of the government, nuclear emergency organizations, relevant departments, relevant enterprises, professional teams, social organizations and military rescue units shall work in coordination with one another in a joint effort to complete nuclear accident emergency response actions.
― Public safeguard and environmental protection. Public safeguard constitutes the fundamental objective of nuclear emergency preparedness, and it is incumbent upon us to take the attitude and actions that everything is for the people in coping with nuclear accidents. Environmental protection should be viewed as the fundamental requirement of nuclear emergency preparedness in such a way that every effort is made to minimize the release of radioactive substances and do our best to control, mitigate and eliminate damages to the environment.
The basic principles underlying nuclear emergency preparedness in China are: unified leadership, different levels of responsibility, tiered arrangements, coordination between the locality and the military, quick response, and scientific handling.
― Unified leadership, different levels of responsibility. Under the unified leadership of the central government, China has established a nuclear emergency management system featuring assignment of responsibility to different levels. The operator of the relevant nuclear installation is the major body of accountability for on-site emergency work. The people's government at the provincial level is the major body of accountability for off-site emergency activities in its jurisdiction.
― Tiered arrangements, coordination between the locality and the military. Nuclear emergency involves the central and the local, the military and the government, on-site and off-site, specialized techniques and social administration. Therefore, it is necessary to uphold the principles of uniform deployment and centralized planning, mutual support, mutual coordination, and comprehensive rescue at all times.
― Quick response, scientific handling. When a nuclear accident occurs, all levels of nuclear emergency organizations shall be mobilized at the earliest possible time to rapidly control and mitigate the accident to minimize any impact on the public and the environment. Every effort shall be made to take into account the characteristics and rules applicable to nuclear accidents as the basis for organizing studies and evaluations to enable scientific decision-making, and enforce a full range of response actions in an effective manner, including radiation monitoring, worksite rescue, decontamination and cleansing, radiation protection and medical treatment, and so forth.