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Passage Three

There is a widespread assumption that work gets harder after 40. But in most organizations work gets dramatically easier after 40.

The responsibilities may be heavier, but after 40 you should be valued for your experience, know-how and judgment, rather than for the ability to work 18 hours every day. Most of the major rewards of success tend to accumulate after the age of 40 – if you do the right things before that watershed birthday.

What are the right things? First of all, do your homework; learn every thing you need to know about your business or profession before 40. Second, develop your own style. Before you’re 40, learn what you’re comfortable with, whether it’s in the way you dress or simply the small touches that set you apart. Third, put your emotional life in order, if possible. It’s a great help, when climbing toward the higher rungs of the career ladder, to be happy in life, rather than to find yourself mired in emotional crises. It’s hard enough to succeed without taking on personal problems that sap your energy and divert your attention. Besides, unhappiness is like a disease – it gradually eclipses interest in everything else.

Fourth, know your weaknesses. Accept the things you don’t do well, can’t stand, won’t do.

Fifth, know your strengths. You’d better decide what you’re good at, too, and recognize the things you enjoy doing and do better than anyone else. Whatever your role, knowing who you are and what you’re good at is critical for success.

31. What is the common opinion about age and work?

32. What does the speaker think about age and work?

33. What should not be valued after one is 40?

34. According to this passage, what should you do after 40?

35. What is the key to success in the speaker’s opinion?


Part III

Parts of the following text are missing. While listening to the tape, complete the passage by filling in each blank space with an appropriate word or words. There are 20 blanks, each carrying one point. You will hear the passage only once.

WASHINGTON. The Bush administration has signaled for the first time that it may be willing to allow a multinational force in Iraq to operate under the sponsorship of the United Nations as long as it is commanded by an American.

The idea was described by Richard L. Armitage, the deputy secretary of state, as just "one idea being explored" in discussions at the United Nations. It was first hinted at publicly last week by Kofi Annan, the United Nations’ secretary general.

Mr. Armitage's remarks, made on Tuesday to regional reporters and released by the State Department today, represent a potential shift in course for the administration, which has until now insisted that all military, economic and political matters in Iraq remain under total American control. Allowing the United Nations a leadership role would be intended to win the support of the Security Council for a new mandate authorizing the American-led occupation of the country.

In his remarks, Mr. Armitage declined to discuss the plans in any detail, saying, "I don't think it helps to throw them out publicly right now." But he described the arrangement under consideration as "a multinational force under U.N. leadership" in which "the American would be the U.N. commander."

On Monday, Defense Secretary Donald H. Rumsfeld was asked whether he could envision American troops fighting under United Nations’ command. His answer: "I think that's not going to happen." But he went on to rule out only "a blue-hatted leadership" meaning by the United Nations, whose troops wear blue helmets over a peacekeeping force in Iraq.

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