A. 很多学生不知道什么是Essay, 以为就是叫议论文。
其实不是我们中文中的议论文, Essay 是“固定结构式文章”的总称，基本包括三种：
一般疑问 = 一边倒（Agree or disagree? Positive or negative?）
I agree that library is to be replaced by the Internet. The internet provides the fastest worldwide access to the widest range of information, and average people tend to read online rather than on books in a library. Maintaining libraries takes a great deal, which are money from government revenue, paper from trees, and land from living. People nowadays visit libraries for other purposes instead of reading, such as, dating or free air-conditioning, ironically.
Conclusion: libraries are out of date.
特殊疑问 = 并列结构（What are the effects? What are the reasons? Why?）
People work and study at home with the Internet, the effects are as follows. Face to face communication is reduced. There is less demand for land, and housing prices will be decreasing. The less people go out, the less the traffic is, the less the air pollution is caused.
Conclusion: the trend is irreversible.
两边观点式 = 4段式（常识题Some say… While others say…）
Some people say environmental issues can be only solved by governments, while others believe that average citizen can solve the problems as long as they take actions. I will discuss both views and give my opinion. The former view is definitely wrong. The second view is only partly true.
Conclusion: environmental issues can be solved only by common efforts of individuals and organizations.
B. 另外，从英式议论文也叫traditional essay来看，雅思议论文在语言要求上要简单的多。 可以用主观代词“I”，不要求非常精确，剑桥6的小作文“silkworm life cycle”中，考官范文用了三次“produce”, 第一次是“下蛋 = produce eggs”（准确为lay）, 第二次“吐丝 = produce silk threads”（准确为spit）, 第三次是“制造丝布 = produce silk cloth”(可以不重复用make)——词汇在写作中是“细枝末节”，占比分不高。考官使用“有助于”不是“is good for”“is beneficial for”,而是helps。
在traditional essay中，有一种叫5-paragraph essay, 其基本结构为：
首段：grabbing引入 + thesis主题 + main Ideas段落大意
中间段1：分论点argument 1 + evidence论证
中间段2：bridge段间过渡1 + 分论点argument 2 + evidence论证 + bridge段间过渡2
中间段3：分论点argument 3 + evidence论证
结论：conclusion = a restatement of thesis重申总论点
The point that the greatest significance should be attached to is not which word looks most spectacular at a specific place, but in what way you can express yourself accurately in a rather short period of time, as most students are not aware of, and as is what most writing teachers are having headache about, especially in countries of test-oriented education system, namely, China.