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Passage Three

Dyslexia is a term used to describe a marked difficulty in learning to read despite normal intelligence and vision. The problem is universal, but research suggests it doesn't affect every culture or language group equally. On China's mainland and in Japan, for example, dyslexia rates are estimated at less than 5 percent compared to 10 percent to 20 percent in the U.S. There are intriguing theories as to why, and Japan has produced some important clues.

Japanese children first learn to read and write in parallel phonetic alphabets, hiragana and katakana, each containing 46 characters relating to 46 different sounds. After conquering them, the student embarks on learning Chinese characters. According to Uno, who works for Japan's National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry, just 1 percent of Japanese students have dyslexic problems in reading the phonetic alphabets, while 2 percent encounter problems with Chinese characters. The numbers jump a bit when it comes to writing -- 2 percent for hiragana, 3.8 percent for katakana and 5 percent for ideograms -- but they're still low by American standards.

31. The passage is about ______.

32. Which of the following statements is true of dyslexia?

33. Which of the following countries is most affected with dyslexia according to the passage?

34. Which of the following is not true of the Japanese language?

35. What can be inferred from the passage?


Passage Four

Stocks can be divided into two categories: those for trading and those for investing. Within trading stocks, you make money by figuring out whether other traders will keep buying or start selling the stock and positioning yourself accordingly for a few weeks or even days. By contrast, with investing stocks you aim to buy into a company at an attractive price, given the worth of its assets and likely future profits, regardless of when the value will be recognized by the market. This way, you can steer clear of overpaying for fashionable dogs.

There's nothing revolutionary about this strategy, of course. It's just a question of calmly mixing and matching some old, and apparently somewhat contradictory, stock market wisdom and applying it to a hot market. About 70 years ago, British economist John Maynard Keynes said investors should view the market as a beauty contest, and they should mainly buy trading stocks that other people would find attractive. Benjamin Graham, the father of modern securities analysis, bristled at that idea. He lamented that stock buyers, though almost always called investors, are often actually speculators. Instead, he preached that they should make a hard-nosed assessment of the inherent value of companies and search out investing stocks.

36. What is the most appropriate title for this passage?

37. Which of the following statements is true of John Maynard Keynes?

38. How did Benjamin Graham view stock investment?

39. Which of the following statements can be inferred from the passage?

40. The speaker presents the passage by the following logic: ______.

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