The Xilamulun valley includes
Wuerjimulun River, Yingjin River, Laoha River and others. Two types
of cultures were found in the valley. One is the Hongshan type
found in Chifeng City and the other is the Fuhe River type found at
Fuhegoumen, Bairin Left Banner of Inner Mongolia.
According to radiocarbon test results, the Fuhe River Culture
was also a settlement dating back 5,000 years. The villages of the
Fuhe River Culture were situated on hills or highlands, facing the
sun. For example, the settlement at Fuhegoumen, consisted of over
150 houses or over 41 houses. The houses were mainly square, but
some of them were round.
The soft pottery of the Fuhe River Culture was all with sand
inclusions and was not treated by high temperatures. The surface of
the pottery was brown, with the largest portion of them being tan.
Whether or not there were patterns on the surface of the pottery,
they were all ground. Most of the patterns were pressed and the
ones found most often were horizontal Z-shaped patterns, while
others were vertical Z-shaped patterns.
The stoneware found at the Fuhe River Culture site was mainly
made by knocking. It was regular and fine. Stoneware for chopping
and smashing accounted for the biggest share.
The production tools found in Fuhe River Culture were mainly
stones and bones. Bones were used to make arrowheads, knife
handles, needles, fishhooks, fish darts and toothed bones. Many
animal remains were found at Fuhegoumen, including those of wild
boars, deer, gazelles, foxes, squirrels and others. Marks resulting
from processing were left on them. The remains were mainly
discarded raw materials, semi-finished articles and broken
In addition, auspicial bones were found at Fuhe River Culture
sites. These deer or sheep blade bones were burned, but not bored
or chiseled and thus remained unchanged. They are the earliest
auspicial bones to be found in China so far.
Fuhemenggou relics reflect the then mountainous and forest areas
in which the culture existed. The ancient people of the Fuhe River
lived in settled villages, and used tools to dig the earth and
grind corn. This indicated that a primitive agriculture was
developed in the culture. The large number of captured wild animals
and fishing and hunting tools showed that fishing and hunting were
an important part of their life.