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History of Tibet
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Taking into account the concrete characteristics of the local historical traditions, social situation, natural environment, ethnic group and religion, the Yuan authorities adopted special measures in the administration of Tibet that differed from the policies applied to the other 10 administrative areas.

First, in 1270, Yuan Emperor Kublai Khan conferred the official title of Imperial Tutor on Pagba, a leading Tibetan lama of the Sagya Sect. This was the highest official post of a monk official in the Chinese history. From then on, Imperial Tutor became a high-ranking official in the central authorities directly appointed by the emperor, taking charge of Buddhist affairs in the whole country, and local affairs in Tibet.

Second, shortly after the Yuan Dynasty was founded, the Zongzhi Yuan was set up to be responsible for the nation's Buddhist affairs and Tibet's military and government affairs. In 1288, it was renamed Xuanzheng Yuan. The Prime Minister usually acted as the executive president of the Xuanzheng Yuan, concurrently, while a monk nominated by the Imperial Tutor held the post of vice president. This marked the first time in Chinese history that a central organ was set up specially taking charge of Tibetan affairs.

Third, Tibet was divided into different administrative areas, and officials with different ranks were appointed to consolidate administrative management, with the Imperial Tutor assuming overall responsibility.

Since Tibet was incorporated into the map of the Yuan Dynasty in the mid-13th century, China had experienced the rise and fall of dynasties and the resultant change in the central authorities. However, this in no way altered the central administration's rule over Tibet.

Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)

In 1368, the Ming Dynasty replaced the Yuan Dynasty. The Ming abolished the system of the Xuanzheng Yuan as a central organ to deal with Tibetan affairs, and stopped conferring the official title of Imperial Tutor on Tibetan monks. But, the Ming rulers introduced a new system of granting official titles to Tibetan monks. The highest-ranking monk official was called Prince of Dharma, which was different from Imperial Tutor in the Yuan Dynasty. He was not stationed in Beijing. He had no right to be in charge of the Buddhist affairs nationwide, nor had he a fixed manor. This points up to the fact that the official post was honorary in nature. Though varying in rank, these Princes of Dharma could not exercise control over each other, nor could they engage in administrative affairs. They were directly under the central administration.

The central authorities of the Ming, following the administrative system of the Yuan, set up local administrations in Tibet to respectively govern the military and political affairs of front and rear Tibet, Qamdo and Ngari areas.

Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)

After replacing the Ming in 1644, the central authorities of the Qing Dynasty introduced a set of rules and regulations for rule over Tibet. As these rules and regulations were legal in nature, they were very effective.

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