The Ministry of Environmental Protection, State Statistics Bureau and Ministry of Agriculture jointly release the Bulletin on the First National Census on Pollution Sources on February 9, 2010. Other findings of this census will be made public one after another. The over-two-year-long National Census on Pollution Sources has been successfully completed.
The outcomes of the First National Census reveal some problems known in the past like striking structural industrial pollution, pollution concentrated in several sectors and bigger pollution amount in developed regions. However, there are also some pre-eminent problems identified by this national census such as higher contribution to water pollution by agricultural sources; bigger impacts of vehicle emission on urban air pollution and huge amount of solid waste. The head of relevant department said, for environmental problems reflected by the census, the Chinese Government will make more efforts to address them based on the development of the 12th Five-Year Plan for Environmental Protection and future work plan.
There are a total of 5.9256 million sources covered by the first national census. Among them, 1.5755 million are industrial sources, 2.8996 million agricultural sources, 1.4456 million domestic sources and 4790 concentrated pollution treatment facilities.
The total discharge of major water pollutants identified by the census is the followings:
1) The total COD discharge is 30.2896 million t. Among them, 5.6436 million t come from industrial sources; 13.2409 million t from agricultural sources; 1.10805 million t from domestic sources and 324,600 t from landfill facilities (leachate). COD discharge from agricultural source and domestic source accounts for 44% and 37% respectively of the total. COD discharge of 7 industries including paper making, textile, farm and subline products processing, chemicals, beverage, food and medicine accounts for 81% of total industrial sources. 2) The total NH3-N discharge is 1.7291 million t. Among them, 207,600 t come from industrial sources; 1.4893 million t from domestic sources and 32,200 t from landfill facilities (leachate). The NH3-N discharge from 8 industries such as chemicals, non-ferrous metal metallurgy, petroleum refinery, farm and subline products processing, textile, leather, beverage and food takes up 86% of the total industrial sources. 3) The discharge of heavy metals (cadmium, chromium, arsenic, mercury and lead) reaches 900 t. 4) The total phosphorus discharge reaches 423,200 t. 138,000 t come from domestic source; 284,700 t from agricultural sources and 456.85 t from landfill facilities (leachate). 5) The total nitrogen discharge is 4.7289 million t. 2.7046 million t come from agricultural sources and 2.0243 million t from domestic source,
The total emissions of major air pollutants: 1) The total SO2 emissions is 23.20 million t. Among them, 21.1975 million t come from industrial sources, 1.994 million t from domestic source and 8500 t from garbage, medical waste and incineration of hazardous waste. The six industries including power & heating, non-metal mineral products, ferrous metallurgy, chemicals, non-ferrous metal metallurgy and petroleum refinery account for 88% of total industrial emissions. 2) Total NOx emissions is 17.977 million t. Among them, 11.8844 million t come from industrial source, 582,000 t from domestic source, 5.4965 million t from vehicle emission, and 14,100 t from medical and hazardous waste incineration facilities. Five industries including power & heating, non-metal mineral products, ferrous metallurgy, chemicals, and petroleum refinery account for 91% of total industrial emissions.
Total discharge of solid waste and hazardous wastes: 1) Total discharge of industrial solid waste and hazardous waste is 3.852 billion t, among them, 1.804 billion t are under comprehensive utilization, 441 million t under disposal, 1.599 billion t under storage this year with 49.1487 million t under discharge. 2) Total generation of industrial hazardous waste reaches 45.7369 million t, 39,400 t of them are discharged.
To understand the comprehensive information about the amount of various pollution sources; their industry and regional distribution; amount and destiny of major pollutants; operation of pollution treatment facilities, treatment level and cost, the State Council issued a circular in October of 2006, which decided that the first national census on pollution sources be conducted in early 2008. Its starting time is December 31, 2007 covering the data across the whole year of 2007. The subjects of the national census would cover all industrial, agricultural and domestic pollution sources as well as concentrated pollution treatment facilities across China. The national census would mainly investigate the basic situation of pollution source; consumption of energy, raw materials and water; discharge of pollutants and treatment of pollution.
To organize and carry out the national census in a scientific and effective way and according to law, Premier Wen Jiabao signed No.508 Order of the State Council and promulgated the Regulations on National Census on Pollution Sources. The General Office of the State Council has printed out and distributed the Program for the First National Census on Pollution Sources. To strengthen the leadership of the work, the State Council has established the Leading Group on the First National Census on Pollution Sources involving such departments as Ministry of Environmental Protection (former State Environmental Protection Administration), State Statistic Bureau, NDRC, the Publicity Department of CCCPC, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development, Ministry of Public Security, State Administration of Industry and Commerce and General Logistics Department of the People's Liberation Army. Vice Premier Li Keqiang is the head of the group. The Office of the group is located in Ministry of Environmental Protection and takes charge routine organization and coordination of the national census. Based on the requirements specified in the circular of the State Council, local governments at all levels have set up corresponding leading group and its office.
The national census has successfully finished its tasks thanks to joint efforts of each region, relevant departments and census institutions at all levels with mobilization of 570,000 people and lots of work over the past two years. This national census is an important investigation on national situation and strength. It has identified basic situation of four categories of pollution sources, primarily established files of various key pollution sources and pollution source information database at both national and local levels. It has laid a good foundation for the management of pollution sources and establishment of a new environmental statistic platform for the “12th Five-Year Plan” period. In addition, this national census has provided rich information for the implementation of the scientific outlook on development, transformation of economic growth mode, adjustment & optimization of economic structure and development of the "12th Five-Year Plan for National Environmental Protection". The publicity and carrying out of the census activities as well as wide public participation have further improved public awareness in environmental protection.