The Governance of China states philosophy and polices of new central leadership

By Wang Hongmei
0 Comment(s)Print E-mail, February 17, 2015
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 The book of The Governance of China stated comprehensively the philosophy and polices of the new central leadership with Xi Jinping at the core.

Through the studying the book, we can learn the philosophy of Xi Jinping's governance that achieving rejuvenation as the politic goal , upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics is the road, all-round and deeper-level reform,developing a law-based country, reaching all-round, cooperated, sustainable development.The philosophy of Xi Jinping's governance is the inheritance and development to the Mao Zedong's and Deng Xiaoping's.

The philosophy of the governance is the basic thoughts and viewpoints that the leader of a country has formed on the acquainted foundation of the political goal, essence, law, etc. In 1949, the CPC led the Chinese people to establish new China through arduous revolution. Since then ,the CPC started the new task of governance. And formed different governance and policies at the different eras, especially in Mao Zedong's era and Deng Xiaoping's era. Currently, on the one hand China has gained remarkable achievements ,on the other hand there are a lot of dilemmas and problems in the innovation. And how can we resolve these problems , realize the Chinese dream? The hope of ours focus on the new central leadership with Xi Jinping at the core. For more than two years, the idea of governance, the style of governance, the feature of governance have been paid attention by the people of China and even the world.

1. The summary of the philosophy of Xi Jinping's governance

Some scholars think the ideas of Mao Zedong's governance are embodied by three sides: the goal is Communism, the ethics principle is egalitarianism, the politic means is struggle. The ideas of Deng Xiaoping's governance are insisting the central of economic to develop economic and promote the standard of people's living as the core. Though it is early to decline the ideas of Xi Jinping's governance, but through his speeches, talks, interviews, instructions, and correspondence, etc .we can conclude his ideas and policies of governance. During Xi Jinping attended the Sochi Winter Olympics, he answered the Russia Television interview. When was asked how he would govern, he answered: the CPC exercises state power for the people ,the people's aspiration for a better life is our goal. To put it briefly,I will govern by serving for the people and fulfilling the responsibilities imposed on me.

In general, the philosophy of Xi Jinping's governance is achieving rejuvenation as the politic goal, upholding and developing socialism with Chinese characteristics is the road, all-round and deeper-level reform, developing a law-based country, reaching all-round, cooperated, sustainable development.

Professor Wang Yukai of National School of Administration thinks, since Xi Jinping has assumed office,the governance wasn't piecemeal action,also wasn't repairing, but embodied distinctive three integration features: integral idea, integral plan, integral strategy. At the framework of above ideas, the four features of governance were embodied: governing with iron rule , serving for the people, fairness and justice, independence. In the aspect of the governing with iron hand, after the18th CPC National Congress , the central leadership has unveiled step by step a series of combating corruption with iron hand ,and arrested such "big tiger"as Zhou Yongkang and Xu Caihou, all these made people sure that the "Zero tolerance" isn't only a comment. In the aspect of serving for the people,the highest principle that is protecting the people's profit embodies the Xi Jinping's idea and value of people-based. Xi Jinping ever said: what the people seek is the goal of our endeavor. We must let everyone can realize his dream, we must let everyone can feel the fairness and justice. In the aspect of the fairness and justice, not only in the decision of all-round and deeper-level reform, but also in the strategy of a law-based country, they all put the fairness of system, chance, rule on the important position,,Xi Jinping thinks the fairness is the foundation of social lasting stability. In the aspect of the independence , Xi Jinpijg always emphasize "not copying others" , we must find an own road to realize the Chinese Dream and achieve the rejuvenation.


2. The philosophy of Xi Jinping's governance is the inheritance and development to Mao Zedong's and Deng Xiaoping's.

To the idea and style of Xi Jinping's governance ,some foreign press ever discussed that it is similar to the Mao Zedong's or the Deng Xiaoping's. In fact , there are not the same ideas of governance in different eras. But it is a long-term and systematic project , and also is a process of inheritance and development for the Chinese development road. Through the summary to the idea of Xi Jinping's governance, we can find that it is the inheritance to the Mao Zedong's and Deng Xiaoping's, as well as the development and innovation to the first two.

2.1. The philosophy of Xi Jinping's governance is the inheritance to Mao Zedong's and Deng Xiaoping's.

2.1.1. The ideas in direction, road and goal of development are the inheritance, also are traced to the same origin. About the goal of development, all leaders hope to enforce the country and enrich the people, hope to achieve the rejuvenation. About the direction of development, all leaders uphold the socialist road, and through continue innovation, establish Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. Xi Jinjping ever emphasized for several times that the guiding principles of the 18th CPC National Congress is upholding and developing Socialism with Chinese Characteristics. Socialism with Chinese Characteristics is pure socialism and nothing else, only socialism can save China, only socialism with Chinese Characteristics can bring development to China.

On September 30, 2013, Xi Jinping made an important speech at the 65th national day reception, he emphasized several insistings: we must insist on own road, we must insist on paying attention to the development as the most important task; we must insist on reform and innovation; we must insist on peaceful and development; we must insist on strengthening Party building, it should supervise its own conduct and operate under strict discipline; we must insist on being modest and prudent guard against arrogance and rashness.

All above were emphasized by Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping, and were also the principles of the content for all leads in governing the country. Xi Jinping will continue to flourish the ideas.

2.1.2. About the solution of specific problems that China is confronting now, the methodology, basic viewpoints and attitude, determination that Xi Jinping insists on are the inheritance to Mao Zedong's and Deng Xiaoping's.

About the methodology, the famous philosophical writings of "On Practice", "On Contradiction" written by Mao Zedong are all-time classic of Marxism scientific methodology. Deng Xiaoping insisted that practice was the sole criterion for testing truth, at the beginning of reform and opening up, Deng Xiaoping gave the methodology of the answer for solving a series of hot and difficult issues at that time, for example, the famous "cat theory", "wading across the river by feeling for the stones" etc. In the current, China faces a series of risks and challenges, Xi Jinping applies to the Marxism scientific methodology, goes on insisting on that proceed from reality in all things, linking theory with practice, insist on applying the methodology with the system theory, the contradiction theory to solve problems that appeared in the development. For example, Xi Jinping applies the system theory to strengthen top-level design in all-round and deeper-level reform, and applies the contradiction theory to coordinate all kinds of relations and problems in the road of development. 

About the basic viewpoints, the mass line is the important content of historical materialism, is also insisted by Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping during governing the country. Xi Jinping pays close attention to the mass line, he said: the mass line is the life of our party and the fundamental approach to the Party's work. the people's wish for a good life is our goal , we must always bear in mind what the people think, the people are the creators of history, they are the real heroes and the source of our strength.

About the attitude and determination, Xi Jinping adopts the tough attitude for breaking fixed profit model and combating corruption , he dares to take on challengers and chew tough bones, he said: "It takes good iron to make good products .""Empty talk harms the country, while hard work makes it flourish", "we must be firm in our determination and demonstrate great courage in carrying this campaign through to the end. Just as we would take a heavy dose of medicine to treat a serious disease, we must apply stringent laws to address disorder."


2.2. The ideas of Xi Jinping's governance are the development to Mao Zedong's and Deng Xiaoping's.

About the development and innovation, the ideas of Xi Jinping's are around the "solving the difficult problems,pooling China's strength". In the current ,the reality, duty, surroundings and problems that China confronting can be summarized by that word. The professor Wang Yukai thinks that there are five historic missions that Xi Jinping must realize during governing China: remodeling the image of CPC, reestablishing the bureaucracy of China, reconfiguration the order of China, restructuring the value of China, restructuring the direction of Chinese development. We can understand the direction of the development and innovation in Xi Jinping's governance , confronting the new era, new surroundings, new problems , new task.

2.2.1. In the aspect of politic, continuing the reform of the politic system, developing a law-based country. we should exercise governance and administration in accordance with the law. Though these aims are not put forward by the new central leadership, but some measures as combating corruption, the viewpoints that power must be "caged" by the system, the "eight rules" for rectifying the working style, opposing "four styles" of formalism, bureaucratism, hedonism and extravagance, property of publish officials, etc, all above embody the development and innovation in the idea of the new central leadership's governance.

2.2.2. In the aspect of economic, realizing sustainable and healthy economic development Since the introduction of the reform and opening up policy, China has made remarkable achievement in economic development, but there are lots of problems. How to transform our economic growth model, how to adjust economic restructuring, how to accelerate transition from factor-driven and investment-driven growth to innovation-driven growth, all these are arduous tasks . It is not only to change the idea, but also to have a good mentality. For example, the word "new normality" is always used to be attributives in economic development recently. Xi Jinping pointed out confidently: new normality will take new development chance for China, though the speed in economic development will lower than ever ,but the number of growth is still big; the development in economic will be steady, the power of the development in economic will be from more aspects , the restructuring of economic will upgrade, the prospect of development will be more steady, the activity of market will be further liberated .

2.2.3. In aspect of literature, cultivating and disseminating the core socialist values, enhancing China's cultural soft power. I think the most prominent is through disseminating the culture to the foreign, let the world learn China, let China go out in the world. For example, The Governance of China was published as Chinese, English, French, Russian, German, Japan, etc languages in September, 28,2014, the book introduce the idea and policy of Chinese governance, it is an important window that the world learn the modern China and find the key to answer the questions about China.

2.2.4. In aspect of society, developing the reform of social undertakings and social administration, especially emphasizing fairness and justice. The professor Wang Yukai expressed: there are 18 policies that about people's standard of living, including health care, education ,employment, housing, etc. in the 60 reform policies, that were deployed in the third plenary session of the 18th CPC central committee. I think the most prominent is the problem of housing. The price of housing was ever so high that money flows into estate, it produced the corruption, popular resentment. According to a series of new policies, for example, accelerating the development of housing security and supply, restrained the price of housing.

2.2.5. In aspect of diplomacy, China goes outside the world with a more confident attitude . During Mao Zedong's era , the situation of diplomacy is more passive because of all kinds of factors. In Deng Xiaoping's era, the famous idea of diplomacy is "bide time, hide capabilities, make a difference". Now in Xi Jinping's era, I think the diplomacy of China is more confident and leisurely compared the first two. For example, since assuming office for more two years , Xi Jinping had visited American, Russia, Europe,etc major-countries, and East Asia, North Asia, Southeast Asia, Central Asia, etc neighboring countries, and Africa, Latin America , etc development countries. All these actions would build new model of major-country relations, and strength neighborhood diplomacy, strength cooperation with developing countries. China is more actively participating in multilateral affairs. The idea and good images of diplomacy are fully showed by these actions of diplomacy.

In addition to above all, in other aspects as ecological progress, national defense, etc, Xi Jinping has proposed new ideas and viewpoints to new problems appeared.


3. Cause analysis of Xi Jinping's governing concept is to inherit and develop those of Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping

3.1. Cause analysis of inheritance

Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping are two-generation great leaders of China. They initiated new situations for China during some certain periods, forming Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory. Their thought and the theory were the valuable intellectual treasures to the Communist Party of China. And have important directive significance at any time in Chinese history.

3.2. Cause analysis of development

3.2.1. The historical backgrounds are different

During Maoist Era, the themes were wars and revolutions. Bipolarity of the cold war had a very big impact on Mao Zedong. Yet the consolidation of the domestic political power and the improvement of people's living standard also posed a hard challenge to Mao Zedong, which were completely different problems faced during the revolutions. The international and domestic situations were bound to directly affect the idea of Mao Zedong's governance.

The themes of times of Deng Xiaoping, however, were peace and development. The political and economic developments of the world were changing each day, and China had just ended ten years of "Cultural Revolution". The people of the whole country were strongly hoping for stability and prosperity. How to make full use of the favorable international environment, to seek a new road of China's development, and to meet the needs of the people, not only became the most urgent task in front of Deng Xiaoping, but the core of Deng Xiaoping's idea of governance.

Since over 30 years of China's Reform and Opening up, China has stridden forward and its economic ranked the second in the world, people's living standards are improved remarkably, and the comprehensive national strength is rising notably, with its improvement of international status and international influence,China has shaken off the poverty and backwardness since the modern times, a confident China is standing in the east today. For the great achievements gained in China, the world exclaimed: some expressed admiration, some expressed praise, and some showed affirmation. But there were also a small amount of countries which had not fully adapted to the rising China. Although the current international situation changes constantly, the international pattern develops towards multi-polarization.

How to create a favorable international environment, and to make China more confidently and calmly step into the stage of international politics, letting more countries know China, and welcome China, are the arduous tasks faced by current leading group of China. However, China has experienced thirty years of rapid development, and the accumulation of problems reached an extraordinarily sharp degree. How to change the ideas of governance, to break the deadlock, and to lead China's development to a new level, are serious challenges. The international and domestic backgrounds as well directly affected governing ideas of the central collective leadership with Xi Jinping at the core.

3.2. 2. Personal Characters and Growth Experience are different

Mao Zedong was born in semi-colonial and semi-feudal China, grew-up and matured in revolutionary war age. in addition, Mao Zedong was idealistic, very stubborn and competitive. And these characters later were bound to influence Mao Zedong's governing concepts consequentially. So he would pursue the ideal egalitarianism, and attempt to use it to bring China to a height of development,so as to realize his dream of strengthening nation and enriching people. Attention and launch mass movements formed in the revolution period, also applied him the methods of using such mass struggles to solve existing contradictions in the society, and cleaning away all obstructions that prevent him from achieving his dream of governing a country.

Deng Xiaoping was born and raised in the age as Mao Zedong, from some aspect, but I think one difference in his growing experience is that Deng Xiaoping used to study in France. Although not every study-abroad experience makes a difference, Deng Xiaoping's studying in France certainly broadened his horizon. Having experienced the revolutionary war times and the founding of China, Deng Xiaoping belonged to the first generation of the leading group, so he could look from a high altitude; And he was not the core, so he could calmly see the essence of the problem of Chinese. Deng Xiaoping was pragmatic, he refused to go to the senseless argument, but first do then summarize. These were undoubtedly the distinctive characters of his governing philosophy.

For the politic records of the current Chinese supreme leader Xi Jinping, the most common comment is, "he worked steadily from the most grass-roots". Xi Jinping officially began his political life from 1982, serving as the Deputy Secretary of Heibei province Zhengding County Party committee. Until now, he has worked in this field for 32 years. Before working in the CPC central office, he had different positions in Hebei, Fujian, Zhejiang, Shanghai, four provinces and cities. In Zhengding County in Hebei province, he worked as the county Party Secretary; For 17 years, he worked from the deputy mayor to the vice secretary of provincial Party committee, governor in Fujian. Since then, he worked in Zhejiang, Shanghai as the provincial leader.

His personal growth experience reflects his understanding of the grass-roots people, so he thought his governing idea is to serve the people. Central Party School professor Han Qingxiang thinks he is a outwardly gentle but inwardly stern, and described him a "velvet grove" and as a person with principle and pursuit for unity. Of course people here should refer to. So Xi Jinping took officers in the strong anti-corruption, put forward the "kill both tigers and flies", and rectify the style, such as "the eight regularities" and "four styles", reflecting his principle of governing the country.


In conclusion, According to the different missions and goals of the different times, different Chinese leaders will have different governing concepts. Yet, the Socialist Road with Chinese Characters must be a long-term and systematic project. The governing ideas of all the Chinese leaders should be traced to the same origin, and are as well innovative. The governing concept of Xi jinping's governing idea is just to inherit and develop those of Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping.

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