SCIO briefing on China's 1st National Day of Space Flight

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Xu Dazhe, vice minister of China's Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (MIIT), administrator of the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence (SASTIND) and administrator of the China National Space Administration

Hu Kaihong, vice director-general of the Press Bureau, State Council Information Office

April 22, 2016

Hu Kaihong:

Ladies and gentlemen, good afternoon and welcome to today's press conference. April 24 is designated as the National Day of Space Flight from 2016 with the approval of the State Council. We are very glad to have Xu Dazhe and Tian Yulong here today. Mr. Xu is vice minister of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, administrator of the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence and administrator of the China National Space Administration. Mr. Tian is chief engineer of the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence and secretary of the China National Space Administration. They will brief you on the National Day of Space Flight and the development of China's space industry. I am Hu Kaihong, spokesperson for the State Council Information Office.

China launched its first manmade satellite, Dong Fang Hong No. 1, on April 24, 1970, making it the fifth country that was able to launch a homemade satellite using a homemade rocket. China has made great progress in the field of astronautics for more than four decades. The establishment of the National Day of Space Flight comes in line with the needs to preserve the Chinese ethos, build China into a leading country in the space industry, foster public awareness for science and culture, increase young people's interest in science, realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation and further exhibit China's determination and faith in the peaceful use of outer space to promote human progress.

The theme of this year's National Day of Space Flight is the "Chinese dream, space dream." The day will be observed through a series of educational activities held nationwide, including lectures on national day, exhibitions, an open day for the public and meetings with experts on campuses.

Now, I give the floor to Mr. Xu who will give you a detailed introduction to the National Day of Space Flight and the development of China's space industry and then take questions from you.

Xu Dazhe:

Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen. I am very pleased to meet our friends from the press here and thank you very much for your attention and support of China's space industry.

China launched its first manmade satellite, Dong Fang Hong 1, on April 24, 1970, laying a foundation for China's space industry. Setting this day as the National Day of Space Flight demonstrates the particular attention paid by both the Party and the nation to the space industry, China's stance on the peaceful exploration of outer space as well as China's determination to maintain innovation and scale the heights of future development. We hope the establishment of the national day will become an important carrier for developing astronautics, a key platform for space education, scientific exploration and innovation, and a window for the rest of the world to better understand China's space industry.

This year marks the 60th anniversary of China's inception of the space industry. For the past six decades, people working in the industry have dedicated themselves to blazing a trail in the space industry through innovation and building a complete astronautic research and production system as well as an efficient engineering management system, powered by a high-caliber team of skilled men. They have created a space spirit and culture, made outstanding accomplishments in artificial satellite technology, manned space flight and lunar exploration, made solid progress in the development of space technology and science, and made a positive contribution to the promotion of science, the economy and national strength.

Currently, China has successfully soft landed a spacecraft on the moon and has grasped the key technologies of manned space flight, taking the country to the forefront of space technologies in the world. In addition, its self-developed Beidou Navigation System is advancing towards the integration into the global networking and the resolution ratio of remote sensing satellites has entered the Amish era. China has launched the Long March series of carrier rockets for 226 times, with a success rate of over 96 percent. It has satellite systems with complete function ranging from communication, remote sensing and navigation to technological experiment, with nearly 150 satellites currently in orbit. China's space technology has served economic and social development, with remote sensing satellites represented by a Gaofen, Fengyun, Ocean and Resources series widely applied in agriculture, forestry, land observation, mapping, water conservancy, housing construction, environmental protection, disaster reduction, transportation, meteorology and ocean development. A stable and efficient commercialized business model has taken shape in the operation of communication satellites. The development of navigation and positioning satellites are moving on a path of industrialization. The application of various satellites has yielded remarkable economic and social benefits. Take the key project of the high-resolution earth observation system as an example. With several satellites already successfully launched, the high-resolution and applied comprehensive information service platform has enabled over 1,100 companies in 18 sectors and 25 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions to realize data sharing and popularize their professionalized application. China's exploration capacity and research level in space science has improved remarkably. Space science application in manned space flight and moon exploration has made headway in development. Several scientific experiment satellites represented by the Dark Matter Particle Exploration and Practice series have been successfully launched. Many breakthroughs have been achieved in physics, chemistry, life sciences, microgravity and other space science fields. The fields of space debris observation, mitigation and protection have also made great progress. China's space exploration has become an important platform for pooling wisdom and efforts of Chinese scientists.

Recently, an activity designed to solicit ideas about the load design of the moon exploration from the public met with warm responses from young people and science enthusiasts across China. The international cooperation in space flight has achieved great accomplishments with over 100 cooperation agreements signed with 30 state-level space institutions and international organizations. China also proactively promotes the construction of the "Belt and Road" Space Information Corridor and the construction of a remote satellite constellation together with BRICS countries, and supported the Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization member countries in building a multi-task, mini-satellite constellation. The World Meteorological Organization listed the Fengyun Satellites as International Business Meteorology Satellites and the International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite System authorized the Beidou Navigation System as one of the four core system suppliers. The export of space navigation products has expanded in scale and variety, with 50 satellites for commercial purposes launched for 44 times, 10 carrier launching services completed and nine satellites exported. All of these demonstrate the fact that China's high-end equipment is going global.

Developing space flight and developing power in the field is our long pursued dream. In the year of 2016, the beginning of China's 13th Five-Year Plan, China's Mars Exploration Project has been officially approved, the National Civil Space Infrastructure Construction has been established, the Chang'e-4 mission has been initiated, the Chang'e-5 project has entered a key stage, the Beidou Navigation System has accelerated integration with global networking and the non-poisonous and pollution-free Long March 5 and 7 Carrier Rockets with high thrust will make a maiden flight this year. The Tiangong-2 and Shenzhou-11 docking crafts, Gaofen-3 Satellite, Fengyun-4 Meteorology Satellite, Hard-X Ray Modulation Telescope Detection Satellite and Quantum Science Experiment Satellite will also be launched this year.

The period of the 13th Five-year Plan will bring about strategic opportunities for China's space development. The 13th Five-year Plan covering Space Flight, the 13th Five-year Plan covering Space Science and the fourth edition of China's Space Flight White Paper will be compiled this year. In the near future, the space flight industry will implement an innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development model, make full use of strategic opportunities, and take a strategy-guided, innovation-driven, integrated and industrial upgrading development path. Following the development concept emphasizing technological innovation and stepping up the two "wings" of space application and space science, China's space flight industry will demonstrate and launch new projects, enhance strategic emerging industries, nurture new businesses of "internet plus satellite application," harvest more self-developed achievements and also push forward the formulation of related laws and regulations. In other words, in five to seven years from now, China will have accomplished key scientific projects in manned space, moon exploration, Beidou navigation and high-resolution earth observation. By 2025, the National Civil Space Infrastructure construction will be completed and the space information application business will be industrialized and developed on a large scale. By 2030, all these capacities will be greatly sharpened and China will become a strong power in space flight.

China unswervingly adheres to the principle of peaceful exploration of outer space and is committed to broadening international exchange and cooperation. Starting from this new point, we are willing to take a more open attitude and collaborate with other countries to compose a new chapter in space exploration and contribute to human welfare.

Thank you. Now, I would like to take your questions.

China Daily:

I have three questions for Mr. Xu. What is the significance of setting April 24 as China's National Day of Space Flight? How does the international community feel about the issue? What activities will be arranged for celebrating China's first space day?

Xu Dazhe:

Thanks for your concern for China's National Day of Space Flight. As I have mentioned earlier, we set April 24 as the National Day of Space Flight to commemorate the launch of China's first home-grown man-made earth satellite, which was the first step in Chinese history for sending people into space and discovering the mysteries of the universe and the peaceful use of space resources. It also means that China became the world's fifth country to launch a home-grown man-made satellite, which was the first milestone in the development of China's space industry. With a history of 60 years, the industry has witnessed three milestones: launching a man-made earth satellite, sending Chinese people into space to have them orbit the earth, and realizing the Chinese millennium dream of landing on the moon. Since the first milestone event is pioneering and fundamental, it is representative and commemorative to mark the day of the event as China's National Day of Space Flight, and has been widely accepted among people dedicated to the space industry and other sectors of society. Before I came here, I learned that space agencies from more than 30 countries have sent their letters of congratulation to the National Space Administration, expressing their interest in the issue.

I believe that setting the day helps inherit the spirit of space flight, which is a part of Chinese culture and involves the traditional space spirit and the spirit to develop atomic and hydrogen bombs and man-made satellites, and also to develop manned space flight. Marking the day helps carry on the spirit and take it forward.

It helps unite Chinese strength. The dream of spaceflight is a part of the Chinese dream. We shall adhere to the Chinese path of development, carry forward the Chinese spirit and enhance Chinese wisdom.

It helps cultivate the culture of innovation. The Chinese space program has witnessed a history of independent innovation because no core technology can be bought; we must develop it by ourselves. In these circumstances, we choose a path of self-reliance and innovation.

It also helps promote opening-up and sharing. The space project is huge and complex, demanding international cooperation for exploring the mysteries of the universe for the benefit of mankind. Countries over the world, especially the big powers, must make joint efforts. I have noticed that countries with a will to become strong nations have invested more in space than they did before. We have been adhering to the principle of the peaceful use of outer space resources and hope to act with wide international cooperation. As I mentioned earlier China's National Day of Space Flight will become a window for the world to learn about China's space development. We are willing to take the opportunity brought about by this issue to enhance cooperation with our international counterparts. Thank you.


What achievements do you think have been made due to Sino-Russia cooperation in the space industry so far? In what space fields do you hope to cooperate with Russia?

Xu Dazhe:

China and Russia have established a good method for cooperation. April 12 is Cosmonautics Day in Russia. The general manager of the Russian Federal Space Group Company invited me to attend activities celebrating the day. But it is a pity that I couldn't afford the time then and had to send a representative instead. The general manager, who was the former head of the Russian Federal Space Agency, will make a special trip to Beijing tomorrow to have talks with me and to attend activities for the celebration of China's National Day of Space Flight on April 24, a move that shows that bilateral cooperation has been good in the past and has huge room to develop in the future. The Russian space industry is further ahead than those of other countries and the International Day of Space Flight is set to mark the first man-made satellite launched by the Soviet Union on October 4, 1957. So, it is of great significance to take the opportunity to talk about Sino-Russia cooperation. China and Russia have an outline for cooperation and dozens of collaborative projects, all of which have gone well. We have recently cooperated in aerospace power and electronic components. We will make joint efforts in exploring the mysteries of the universe, making more breakthroughs in space technologies and better use of space resources for the benefits of the people from both nations and all mankind. The room for bilateral cooperation is huge. Thank you.

China National Radio:

The development of China's space industry features a range of highlights and is quite impressive. How do you evaluate the level and strength of the industry as a whole? What's the schedule, plan and target for China's space industry? What kind of large project will be implemented next?

Xu Dazhe:

China now is truly a large country in the space industry, but the United States and Russia are still ahead and the European Space Agency (ESA) also has advanced technology. Currently, China is stepping forward to become a major power in the space industry. We hope that with the implementation of the 13th Five-Year Plan (2016-2020), China can become one of the great powers in the industry in the next 15 years. That's a brief answer for your first question.

China's 13th Five-Year Plan has listed a number of large projects in the space industry that will be implemented in the next five years. Currently, the first thing we should do is to continue focusing on existing projects, including the third part of manned space flight, the third part of moon exploration, and the third part of the Beidou Navigation Satellite System, which are expected to be finished in five to seven years. We also plan to complete a high resolution earth observation system at the end of 13th Five-Year Plan.

Next, we will take about10 years to establish our national civil space infrastructure, which has already been released to the world. During the 13th Five-Year Plan period, we plan to develop deep space exploration, spacecraft on-orbit services and maintenance systems, a sky-earth integration information network and heavy-carrier rockets. This year is the 60th anniversary of China's inception of the space industry, and we have many programs to be launched. In January 2016, we approved the Mars exploration project. Chang'e 4 will land on the far side of the moon, which will be the first landing on the far side by a human being. And the key technology plan for heavy-carrier rockets has been approved. Thus, we have very much work to do on engineering developments for space flight during this period.

As the administrator of the China National Space Administration, I would like to say that in my mind, I have to think not only about aerospace engineering, but also space science and application. The biggest transformation for China's space industry now is to use space resources to serve national economic development and people's wellbeing. Therefore, the three systems -- remote sensing, navigation, communication -- will be expanded accordingly. Just now, I mentioned the development concept of emphasizing technological innovation and stepping up the two "wings" of space application and space science, which is a big change for us. We also should contribute more to mankind. Regarding space science, we will explore more unknown areas and understand more about surviving environments and the space environment of the earth.


According to previous media reports, China will establish a space station around 2020. But Xinhua reported yesterday that the establishment will be carried out around 2022. Which is the exact year? If the plan is changed, why? You said just now that China would establish national civil space infrastructure around 2025, what kind of infrastructure do you mean? Could you give us a brief introduction about that?

Xu Dazhe:

Our plan is to establish a space station around 2020, and we are now carrying out a space lab project. This year, we will launch Tiangong-2 and Shenzhou-11, and conduct a range of tests for a space lab. Around 2020 or 2022, we plan to establish our space station without any change. The word "around" means 2020, 2021 or 2022, it's not an exact number. As for why, manned space flight is a challenging and complicated project, our plan is to accomplish it in 2022. Regarding your question about national civil space infrastructure, I think you can find some documents online. We plan to establish three systems: relatively completed remote sensing, navigation and communication system, in order to serve mankind and people's wellbeing. Currently, I pay more attention on how to improve strategic emerging industries and their applications. Thank you.

China Space News:

Recently, the nation has been mourning the death of Liang Sili, one of China's pioneering space scientists. Meanwhile, people have pondered again the challenging question posed by famous scientist Qian Xuesen why China's schools fail to nurture outstanding talent. My question is how will China cultivate space talent in the future? Are there any specific plans or ideas?

Xu Dazhe:

China's achievements in the space industry can be attributed to both the old generation of patriotic and dedicated scientists and technicians and the subsequent generations of high-quality, innovative talent. As you can see, many chief engineers of satellite, rocket and other large-scale projects are quite young. As far as I can remember, many foreign officials have said that they fully recognize China's achievements in the space, but they were more impressed by China's untapped potential, because there are so many young talented people who can go on working for many years.

As for the challenging question posed by Qian Xuesen, I just want to say that the purpose of creating the National Day of Space Flight is to promote innovation and to create an atmosphere welcoming to talent. We need more original ideas and leading scientists. I knew Mr. Liang very well, while Mr. Qian was the first director of an institution where I worked. I had discussed the issue with Mr. Qian. He gave us great encouragement. He believed that the young generation is working harder and doing better than his generation. But we also noticed that we need to work harder to promote innovation. We must allow people to try new things and make mistakes. We have to develop more incentive policies. This is very important.

The Communist Party of China and the Chinese government have established many methods for honoring and awarding scientists and technicians for their major contributions to the country's space industry. But those contributing to other sectors will not be overlooked. Of the 23 owners of the Two Bombs and One Satellite Award, 12 had engaged in the space industry. Their honor has stimulated generations of space scientists and technicians. The ongoing solicitation of innovative lunar probe design is meant to increase public enthusiasm for innovation.

By the way, I want to share with you one of my stories. The year before last, I visited the United States and talked with the head of NASA. During the talk, I said that space activities have many purposes. First and most importantly, it should inspire dreaming. This is very important to mankind. Second, it should promote innovation. Third, it should be beneficial to people. Fourth, it should promote cooperation. An important space industry can give outstanding scientists and technicians a chance to distinguish themselves from others.

The challenging question posed by Qian Xuese has prompted us to think about many issues. In the future, we will cooperate with the Ministry of Education, the China Association for Science and Technology, the Communist Youth League Central Committee and other departments to further arouse public interest in scientific study and pass down the spirit of Wan Hu, a legendary space pioneer in ancient China, to our children and our children's children.


My first question is about China's satellites. Could you tell us what benefits they have created? The second question is about China's space industry. What role has it played in China's economic and social development? As a strategic new industry, how can it create large benefits after receiving so much investment? When you answered the questions just now, you repeatedly said that the space industry has made great contributions to the improvement of people's livelihood. Could you give us some specific examples of this? What special benefits can people get from it?

Xu Dazhe:

It's true that the space industry needs a lot of investment, but it can also create great social and economic benefits and cultivate a lot of talent. The industry has a close connection to people's livelihood. There is a popular saying that the further the spacecrafts go, the closer the space technologies come to us. China's first satellite only played the song "The East Is Red" in space. That was its only goal. This story is known by many of you here. But today, our life is closely connected with space technologies and satellite applications. For example, before we leave home, we usually check the weather forecast. China's weather satellites enjoy a good reputation throughout the world. They have made great contributions to global atmosphere observation and weather forecast. If we want to make a journey, we will use a navigation satellite, positioning satellite and Earth observation satellite.

When we want to know global news, we will use direct broadcast satellites and communications satellites. In the hinterland, even medical care and education depend on distance services provided by satellites. As soon as we launched a couple of satellites for the High-Resolution Earth Observation System, 25 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government began to build corresponding data centers. Why did they do so? That is because the satellites are closely connected with our daily life. You might have read the news about the heavy metal pollution of soil. Here you need the help of remote sensing satellites, which can analyze land use and soil conditions. Satellites have also been used to monitor plant coverage, mineral exploitation and precision farming activities. They can also estimate grain output. When Ecuador was hit by a major earthquake, we immediately provided it with pictures of the quake-hit area before and after the disaster to help the victims. The United Nations set up a platform for space-based information for disaster management and emergency response in China. So, I have reasonable ground to say that the space industry has a direct bearing on our life. If we can obtain 3D elevation photos, they will help water conservation and urban construction projects. Just a few days ago, we held a meeting to study how to use space resources to help the targeted poverty reduction campaign. This is a major task of the 13th Five-Year Plan period (2016-2020). More than 50 million Chinese people need to be lifted out of poverty. Satellites can give us a lot of data. If we can make good use of them, they will help us in all circles of life.

The data provided by the Chang'e lunar probe project has offered important data to scientists for studying moon and space environments. Therefore, you can see that the benefits of the space industry are mostly intangible. Some people have made calculations and concluded that one unit of growth in the space industry can stimulate the growth of other sectors by 10 times or even higher. When the terminal-end application of a navigation satellite was upgraded, millions of people applied for registration, because the satellite is important to transportation and fishery industries. Just now, I talked about China's key space infrastructure. If we can build it in 10 years, it will create more social and economic benefits. By then, all communications activities can be done on broadband, even if you use a fixed network or mobile network.

Moreover, satellites can be used in public management and social governance, which are also important to us. Many departments have followed our progress closely. We are making satellite observation plans, but our schedule is too tight. We can't fully satisfy the needs of national economic development and social governance. This is the current situation: We can meet basic needs, but we can't meet all of them.


Some people have criticized China's space program, saying it lacks transparency and might contain military implications. I wish to know how you would respond to such criticism. Also, I wonder if you would provide some details about China's annual budget for its space program.

Xu Dazhe:

China's development of its space program features openness, one of the country's five keywords in the principal ideas for development, as evidenced by our cooperation with many countries. Today, the government is holding such a press conference and I am here to answer your questions. This shows our open attitude. I just now briefed you on our plans for this year and for the next five years and ten years, telling the world such information. It's fair to say that China is becoming increasingly open, and its information increasingly transparent.

Space resources can serve national security and the economy, and therefore we integrate military and civil development into our strategy. We use space resources for preserving world peace and safeguarding China's national defense; this is an understandable pursuit. I think, on this subject, China is more and more open. I hope our friends in the United States will notice this so that we may cooperate with our American colleagues in developing astronautic technologies.

I noticed that the U.S. film "The Martian" has an imaginary scenario in which China and the United States jointly conduct a rescue mission on Mars, which shows that our American colleagues are also very keen on cooperating with us. But sadly, due to well-known reasons, obstacles still remain to our cooperation. The positive fact, however, is that we opened up a new dialogue mechanism last year, based on which we will continue our communication this year.

Speaking of the budget, China's budget for the space program is on par with its economic growth. In the latest NPC session, we announced the budget, too. Here, I can tell you, friends from the United States, that our budget is far smaller than that of the U.S. government, roughly 1/10 according to some American colleagues' analysis. The figure represents a certain degree of accuracy. That is all that I want to say. Thank you.


In your briefing just now, we heard that China has formally approved its Mars exploration program. Would you please elaborate on some details? Also, since China has been very successful with its manned spacecrafts, lunar exploration flights, the Beidou sat-nav system and the Gaofen series earth surveillance satellites, I wish to know if there are new space projects to be accomplished during the 13th Five-Year Plan? Please tell us about them.

Xu Dazhe:

It has been approved to launch a Mars exploration satellite around 2020, the final year of the 13th Five-Year Plan. The probe is expected to orbit Mars, land and deploy a rover all in one mission. This is a very difficult task. Mars exploration is a major undertaking for space science and astronautics. Our Mars exploration mission was approved on Jan. 11 of this year. As the window of launch only appears once every 26 months, we are carefully making detailed plans so that we can carry out the mission in 2020, a window of opportunity.

This is a challenge for us, since only the United States has thus far both landed and conducted surface exploration on Mars successfully, and Russia has only successfully landed on Mars. We hope to complete the tasks in one mission, a fairly big leap I would say. Our Mars rover could study the soil, environment, atmosphere on Mars, and check the water on Mars, something we are highly concerned about. Studying these allows human beings to study themselves, including how life originated and what is the environment the Earth exists in. Mars is fairly close to our Earth in many aspects, because it has a certain thickness of atmosphere, but it is different from the Moon, so Mars exploration will represent China's deep space exploration in its truest meanings. Although our spacecraft have already flown into the deep space, deep space exploration cannot be a reality until we have accomplished Mars exploration.


We know that two weeks ago, the U.S. SpaceX company successfully recovered a carrier rocket on a floating sea platform, a milestone in the human history of astronautics. It brought back the world's attention to commercial space flight. Apart from the United States, all major astronautic powers in the world have been actively promoting commercial space flights, which saw SpaceX and its peer companies rushing to take part in space exploration. What is the current development of China's commercial space flight? When will China's own 'SpaceX' appear?

Xu Dazhe:

SpaceX recovered the first-stage booster with success. But to be able to reuse and to relaunch the recovered rocket is a long way away. While we respect the courage of SpaceX, having only booster recovery technology is not enough to make low-cost launches or reduce the general cost of astronautics. It requires us to keep working on engineering and technological development as well as change the way we launch rockets. Lowering costs is a pursuit for us in the engineering sector, and in that way we can reduce expenses, making it more affordable. We should learn from our peers their courage in this regard.

Speaking of commercial space flights, China is already in the business. As I mentioned just now, China has been in the space flight service for many countries, and with all of them we signed contracts. But how we should make the most of social resources and make them serve the astronautic industry is a matter that our government is concerned about. We have an open attitude; we encourage social resources to contribute to the astronautic sector.

In addition, I wish to say that the country set up the National Day of Space Flight to raise the entire society's attention to astronautics, so that all kinds of companies, including those in the private sector, will actively contribute to the development of China's astronautic industry. At the same time, astronautics is a high-risk industry and requires every legal person and every enterprise to carefully understand the opportunities. China has raised the integration of military and civil efforts to the importance of national strategy. In so doing, we hope more resources from the private sector will come to China's national defense and astronautic industries. We welcome their participation, and will make more active policies to facilitate the development of commercial space flight.

China Xiaokang (

Mr. Xu, as you also serve as chairman of the China Atomic Energy Authority, my question is related to the country's atomic energy. The Fourth Nuclear Security Summit was successfully held in Washington in early April of this year. Nuclear safety has been given close attention by the international community in recent years. As a major nuclear country, what effort and progress has China made in strengthening its own nuclear safety? I hope Mr. Xu can answer this question.

Xu Dazhe:

This question has somewhat slightly deviated from our theme today, but I can still answer your question. Nuclear resources can be very well and peacefully used for the benefit of mankind. However, in order to help the nuclear industry enjoy healthy development, we must pay close attention to nuclear safety and consider it a top priority. China has done a lot of work in the field of nuclear safety. From late March to early April, I paid a visit to Washington. Our approaches to replacing high-enriched uranium with low-enriched uranium and building a nuclear security demonstration center have been recognized by society. We must perform well in nuclear science and nuclear medicine, because they are closely related to our health and our moderately prosperous society. Now, how to make better use of nuclear power and whether we can safely use nuclear power to reach more distant planets are the questions asked of our engineers and scientists. Both of the areas are related to safety, the people's livelihood and our economic development. The purposes are the same. We want to make peaceful use of nuclear energy, and we want to enhance the well-being of mankind. Thank you.

Hu Kaihong:

That's all for today's press conference. Thank you, Mr. Xu.

Xu Dazhe:

Thank you to all of our friends from the press.

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