X-1 Question: Why does Chinese Government give top priority to the development of modern agriculture in its New Countryside Construction Program? What are the main ideas of the process and what measures will be taken to promote modern agriculture construction?
A: There are three reasons for China to put its emphasis on the development of modern agriculture in its program of constructing new countryside. First, China's agriculture is currently on the crucial stage of turning from traditional production mode to modern production mode. During the stage, on the one hand, the acceleration of industrialization and urbanization has great demands for agriculture development; on the other hand, resource environment restrains the development of agriculture in rural areas. Under the circumstance, the existing production mode obviously cannot meet the demands for the current agriculture development. Only through accelerating the modernizing agricultural production methods, mode of production and operation conception can China's agriculture development break the limitation of resource environment and meet the demands of industrialization and urbanization.
Second, owing to the fact that China has comparatively less land but bigger population, and insufficient water resource, China has to modernize its agriculture development and substitute its traditional agricultural factors with modernized ones such as chemical fertilizers, agricultural plastic films, pesticides, better irrigation methods, upgraded seeds, farm machineries, electricity, bio-technologies, information technologies and even aviation and space technologies to improve its land production effectiveness and resource utilization for the goal of producing large quantity and healthy farm produce in better qualities to meet China's demand of economic and social development.
Third, with the increase of Chinese people's income and the improvement of their living standards, Chinese people are diversifying their demands from agricultural sector. Agriculture should supply not only healthy food for urban and rural residents, but also a sound ecological environment.
The basic concept of developing China's modern agriculture include: Equipping agriculture sector with modern materials; reforming agriculture with modern sciences and technologies; upgrading agriculture with modern industrial system; promoting agriculture with modern operation modes; developing agriculture through training new types of farmers; lifting the level of agricultural irrigation system, machinery utilization and informationization; raising the rates of land output, resource utilization and agricultural production; and increasingly improving agricultural quality, efficiency and competitiveness. Modern agriculture construction is a course of reforming traditional agriculture modes to constantly increase agricultural productivity, and a course of transforming the growth patterns to promote a better and faster agricultural development. Thus, China will take the following measures to accelerate modern agriculture construction:
First, China will constantly increase agricultural input channels to gradually form a diversified input system involving farmers, governments and social forces.
Second, measures will be taken to improve the facilities and equipment of agriculture development. These measures mainly include: Accelerating farmland irrigation construction, improving the quality of tillable lands, speeding up clean energy development in rural areas, strengthening the construction of infrastructure in rural areas, developing new types of agricultural industry, improving the ability of sustainable development and other measures.
Third, China will increase the independent creativity of agricultural sciences and technologies, accelerate the transforming and applying of scientific and technological achievement to agricultural use, enlarge the contribution of sciences and technologies to agriculture and promote agricultural aggregate production, cleaner production, secure production and sustainable development.
Fourth, measures will be taken to accelerate circulation infrastructure construction, develop modern circulation modes and new types of circulation forms, foster diversified and multi-level circulation markets and build an open and unified market system with orderly competition.