Note: Jiang Zemin, general secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC), delivered an important speech before an assembly gathered in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing July 1, 2001 to mark the 80th anniversary of the founding of the Party. The following is the full text:
Comrades and Friends,
We gather here today at this grand rally to celebrate the 80th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China together with the people of all ethnic groups across the country, and look to the bright future of the development of China and the rest of the world along with all people on earth who love peace and pursue progress.
The Communist Party of China had only some 50 members at its birth 80 years ago and what it faced was a calamity-ridden old China. But today, 80 years later, our Party has become a big party that has been in power for more than 50 years and has more than 64 million members and what the Chinese people see is a prosperous socialist motherland. This tremendous change is a historic miracle in the development of the Chinese nation.
Reviewing the course of struggle of the Party and the people in the last century, we feel exultant and infinitely proud. Looking into the great journey of the Party and the people ahead in the new century, we are filled with strength and confidence that we are bound to win.
I. Achievements and Basic Experience of the Communist Party of China in the 80-Year Struggle
Invariably, the people have kept exploring their road of advance amidst the movement of social contradictions. They have also continued, in the practice of historical activities and by making comparisons, to seek, reveal and develop the truth that guides their advance.
Eighty years ago, the Communist Party of China was founded amidst the torrential anti-imperialist and anti-feudal struggle of the people of all ethnic groups of China and in the tempestuous movement of the proletarian revolution in the world. This was the inevitable result of the development of social contradictions and deepening struggle of the people in modern China.
After 1840, the invasion by Western powers gradually reduced China to the status of semi-colonial and semi-feudal society and subjected the Chinese people to two-fold repression by imperialism and feudalism. The national crisis and social crisis were unprecedentedly grave. From the Opium Wars, through the Movement of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the 1898 Reform Movement and the Yihetuan Movement, the Chinese people carried out dauntless struggles, and numerous people with lofty ideals were trying strenuously to explore a road to salvaging the country and the nation. All the attempts ended in failure one after another although each time they helped promote progress in China under given historical conditions. The 1911 Revolution led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, which overthrew the autocratic monarchy that had ruled China for several thousand years, was of great significance in promoting China's social progress. Yet, it did not succeed in altering the semi-colonial and semi-feudal nature of the Chinese society and the miserable fate of the Chinese people.
Facts show that the self-improvement movements and reformism, the old peasant wars and the democratic revolution led by the revolutionaries of the bourgeoisie that did not touch the foundation of feudalism or other solutions that copied Western capitalism could not accomplish the mission of saving the nation from subjugation and ensuring its survival and the historical tasks against imperialism and feudalism. China was then looking forward to a new social force that could find advanced theories leading to a path of salvaging the country and the nation.
It so happened that in 1917 and 1919, two major events took place in Russia and China, that is, the October Revolution of Russia and the May 4th Movement of China. The salvoes of the October Revolution brought the advanced theory of Marxism-Leninism to China. Starting from the May 4th Movement, the Chinese working class began to cut a striking figure as an advanced social force in the country. At the same time, a number of advanced intellectuals held high the banner of democracy and science and opened up a path for disseminating new ideas and new theories in China. In 1921, the Communist Party of China emerged just as the times required in the process of applying Marxism-Leninism in the Chinese workers' movement.
From then on, the great historical mission of leading the anti-imperialist and anti-feudal revolutionary struggle, winning national independence and people's liberation and invigorating the Chinese nation fell upon the shoulders of the Communist Party of China. The Chinese revolution thus entered a brand-new period of development.
From the Opium War (1840-1842) to the founding of the Communist Party of China, and from the founding of the Party to the present, China has experienced two completely different periods of 80 years. In the first 80-year period, the feudal rulers surrendered the country's sovereign rights under humiliating terms, the society was thrown into wars and chaos, the country became impoverished and weak and the people lived in hunger and cold. In the second 80-year period, the Chinese people, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, have got unprecedentedly united and organized, overcome numerous difficulties and won one victory after another in their revolutionary struggle. Since the founding of New China, the economy and society have developed rapidly; the country has become increasingly prosperous; the people's social status, living standards and cultural and educational level have risen markedly. Through the comparison of the two periods, the Chinese people and all the patriotic forces in China have come to realize that it is precisely the leadership of the Communist Party of China that has enabled the country to materialize the great historical transformation. China has thus come out of the most miserable plight and is now heading for a bright future. Without the Communist Party, there would have been no New China. With the Communist Party, China has put on an entirely new look. This is the fundamental and most important conclusion drawn by the Chinese people from their long years of struggle.
The eventful days and glorious achievements of the 80 years of struggle in which our Party led the people presented a spectacular and colorful panorama before the people.
We fulfilled the task of the new-democratic revolution and attained national independence and the liberation of the people. We carried out the Northern Expedition (1926-1927), the Agrarian Revolutionary War (1927-1937), the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression (1937-1945) and China's War of Liberation (1946-1949). We defeated the Japanese militarist aggression, overthrew the Kuomintang reactionary rule and founded the People's Republic of China. The Chinese have since stood up, and the development of the Chinese nation has since ushered in a new era.
We have established a socialist system and realized the most extensive and most profound social transformation in Chinese history. We have creatively materialized the transformation from new democracy to socialism and established the basic system of socialism in an all-round way, thus ushering in a socialist society in this big oriental country with a population of a quarter of the world's total. This is a big leap forward in China's social change and historical progress, and also serves as a powerful support and impetus to the cause of socialism in the world.
We initiated the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics and found a correct road to the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The Third Plenary Session of the 11th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China marked the beginning of a new period of development for the cause of socialism in China. On the basis of building socialism over the years and summing up both the internal and external historical experience and making hard exploratory efforts, we introduced new policies of reform and opening to the outside world and formulated the basic theory, line and program of our Party in the primary stage of socialism. In face of serious setbacks to world socialism and drastic changes in the domestic and foreign situations, our Party stood rock-firm in midstream. Socialism in China has displayed its vigor and vitality.
We have established a state power of the people's democratic dictatorship, with the Chinese people being masters of their own destiny. China is an ancient civilization of more than five thousand years. However, it is only after our Party came to power that the people became real masters of their country, their society and their own destiny. This represented a fundamental change in the social and political status of the Chinese people. It marked China's realization of a great leap from centuries-old feudalistic autocracy to people's democracy.
We have built an independent and fairly complete national economic system, with our economic strength and aggregate national strength enhanced markedly. It has taken us just a little more than half a century to put an end to the old China's backward state of poverty and ignorance and also set up a complete modern industrial system with all necessary sectors. The annual gross domestic product (GDP) has increased by 57 times since the founding of the People's Republic. The strength of our economy, national defense and science and technology has grown visibly. Our country has edged into the advanced ranks in the world in many areas such as industry, agriculture, national defense, science and technology. The 1.2 billion-plus Chinese people have not only got enough to eat and wear but in general secured a relatively comfortable life.
We have consistently developed socialist culture, and the cultural life of the Chinese people is getting richer and more colorful. Upholding Marxism as the guiding ideology, we have educated the people in patriotism, collectivism and socialism and done much to promote socialist ethical and cultural progress. We have persistently carried forward the fine cultures of all ethnic groups of the country and actively absorbed what is advanced in other civilizations in order to make our socialist culture increasingly flourish. The ideological and ethical standards and the educational, scientific and cultural qualities of the people have kept improving, displaying to the world a new mental outlook of the Chinese nation.
We have put an end once for all to the disunity in the old China and attained a high degree of national unification and unparalleled unity of all ethnic groups. We have abrogated the unequal treaties imposed on China by Western powers and all the privileges of imperialism in the country. The feudal separatist rule has gone forever on this land of China. The 56 ethnic groups share the same lot and have forged a socialist ethnic relationship featuring equality, unity and mutual assistance. All political parties and people's organizations unite as one, help each other and share weal and woe. All socialist laborers, patriots endorsing socialism and patriots supporting national reunification have formed the broadest possible patriotic united front for the reunification and prosperity of the motherland. The successful return of Hong Kong and Macao to the motherland has fulfilled the long-cherished wishes of the whole nation. The exchanges between compatriots on the two sides of the Taiwan Straits have been increasing. The question of Taiwan will be ultimately resolved and the national reunification achieved.
We have forged a people's army under the absolute leadership of the Party and built a strong national defense. We started a revolutionary course of encircling the cities from the rural areas and seizing state power by armed force. With the people's army as the backbone, we relied on the people and armed them. We persisted in educating the officers and men in the Party's theory and program and defeated the well-equipped ferocious domestic and foreign enemies in the prolonged revolutionary wars. The People's Liberation Army has always upheld the purpose of serving the people wholeheartedly. It has played a major role in consolidating national defense, resisting aggression, safeguarding the socialist system and peaceful work of the people and taking part in the country's socialist construction. Our national defense has constantly been reinforced and steady progress has been made in the drive to build a revolutionary, modern and regular army. The People's Liberation Army led by our Party is a staunch pillar of the people's democratic dictatorship, a great wall of steel in defense of the motherland and an important force in socialist construction.
We have adhered to an independent foreign policy of peace and made important contributions to the lofty cause of world peace and development. We have put an end once for all to the history of diplomacy of humiliation in modern China and effectively safeguarded state sovereignty, security and national dignity. We have actively initiated and safeguarded the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, resolutely opposed the hegemonies and power politics with the strong domineering over the weak. We have upheld principle and justice, striving to let justice prevail and safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of the vast number of developing countries, and promoted the establishment of a just and reasonable new international political and economic order. The international standing and influence of socialist China are growing with each passing day.
Facts have fully proved that the Communist Party of China is indeed a great, glorious and correct Marxist political party and the force at the core that leads the Chinese people in the incessant efforts to break new ground.
The outstanding achievements in China's revolution, construction and reform are the results of the concerted endeavor of the people of all ethnic groups of the country, the results of endless and unremitting efforts made in modern times by people with lofty ideals, and also the results of the selfless devotion of Chinese Communists of several generations.
We cherish dearly the memory of Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi, Zhu De, Deng Xiaoping, Chen Yun and other late proletarian revolutionaries of the older generation who made great contributions to China's revolution, construction and reforms and to the founding, consolidation and development of the Communist Party of China. We cherish dearly the memory of the revolutionary martyrs who sacrificed their lives heroically for the sake of founding, defending and building New China. We cherish dearly the memory of all the pioneers who fought for the independence and liberation of the Chinese nation in modern times. The meritorious feats they performed for the motherland have gone down in history!
The people are the true makers of history. On behalf of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, I would like to extend salute to the workers, peasants and intellectuals, all democratic parties, people's organizations and patriotic personages in all walks of life and to the People's Liberation Army, the armed police and officers and men of the public security forces throughout the country. My cordial greetings go to our compatriots in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan as well as all overseas Chinese and my heartfelt thanks to the people and friends in all the countries who live on good terms with us and care for and support China's revolution, construction and reforms!
The 80 years of the Communist Party of China are a period in which the Party has integrated Marxism-Leninism with China's practice in constant pursuit of truth and innovation. They are a period in which the Party has worked hard for the liberation of the nation, prosperity of the country and happiness of the people. They are also a period in which the Party has withstood endless tests and grown in strength in the course of accomplishing the historical missions.
The 80-year practice tells us that it is imperative to persist in integrating the fundamental principles of Marxism with the specific situation in China, persist in taking scientific theories as the guide and unswervingly take our own road. This is the most essential experience we have drawn from the summing up of our Party's history. Marxism is a powerful ideological weapon for understanding and transforming the world. It serves as a guide to action in our revolution, construction and reforms. Marxism is not a dogma. Only by being correctly applied and constantly developed in practice, does it exhibit great vitality. Guided by the collective leadership of the Party Central Committee of the first and second generations with Comrades Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping at the core respectively, our Party persisted in closely combining the basic principles of Marxism-Leninism with China's realities. As a result, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory came into being. The two great theories constitute Chinese Marxism which embodies the basic principles of Marxism-Leninism and the fine philosophy of the Chinese nation and the practical experience of the Chinese Communists. It is exactly because we have had the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory that our Party has been able to lead the people in overcoming all hardships and setbacks and winning one victory after another. As the great crystallization of the practical experience and collective wisdom of the Party and people, Deng Xiaoping Theory is the best continuation and creative development of Mao Zedong Thought under the new historical conditions. It has made major contributions to creating a completely new situation in China's cause of socialism. Holding high the great banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory, all the comrades in the Party are continuing to study new situations and solve new problems, working to promote creatively and in an all-round manner the great cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. To uphold Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought in the new historical period, it is vital to use Deng Xiaoping Theory to observe the present-day world and contemporary China, sum up practical experience, come up with new theories and march forward in a pioneering spirit.
The 80-year practice tells us that it is essential to always rely firmly on the people, work sincerely for their interests and draw inexhaustible strength from them on the road of advance. Flesh-and-blood ties with the people are a fundamental guarantee for overcoming difficulties and risks and making continuous success in our cause. We should never change the stand of sharing a common lot with the people, forget the purpose of serving the people wholeheartedly, and give up the conviction of historical materialism that the people are the real heroes. The Party must always represent the will and interests of the people, which should be the point of departure and objective of all the work we do. It must always rely on the wisdom and strength of the people, which should be the basic line of work in carrying forward our cause.
The 80-year practice also teaches us that we must always consciously strengthen and improve Party building, continuously enhance the creativity, rallying power and combat capability of the Party, and always maintain its vigor and vitality. The key to the success in handling China's affairs well lies in our Party. We must continue to strengthen Party building in light of the development of the situation and in connection with the Party's central tasks. We must be good at summing up experience, uphold the truth, correct mistakes and be modest and prudent. We must have the courage to face up to the problems existing in the ranks of Party members and cadres and resolve them by relying on all Party members and the people. This is where the vigor and vitality of the Party lies. We must continue to press ahead with the new great project of all-round Party building, focusing on the basic issue of what kind of a party to build and how to build it under the new historical conditions so as to address the two major historic subjects of enhancing the Party's ability of exercising state power and art of leadership and resisting corruption and warding off risks.
Reviewing the course of struggle and the basic experience over the past 80 years and looking ahead to the arduous tasks and bright future in the new century, our Party should continue to stand in the forefront of the times and lead the people in marching toward victory. In a word, the Party must always represent the requirements of the development of China's advanced productive forces, the orientation of the development of China's advanced culture, and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people in China (hereinafter referred to as the "Three Represents"-Tr.).
II. Correctly Understand and Comprehensively Fulfill the Requirements of the "Three Represents"
In the new century, the great historical tasks for our Party are to continue with the modernization drive, accomplish the great cause of national reunification, safeguard world peace and promote common development. In face of the profound changes in the domestic and international situations, our Party should follow closely the progressive trends of the world and unite and lead the people of all ethnic groups of the country in seizing opportunities and taking up challenges and accomplishing the three major historical tasks successfully. To this end, we must unswervingly fulfill the requirements of the "Three Represents". The "Three Represents" are the foundation for building the Party, the cornerstone for its exercise of state power and a source of its strength. They are also the fundamental requirements for us to push Party building in an all-round way in the new century, constantly bring forth new ideas in theories, institutions and science and technology, and win fresh victories in building socialism with Chinese characteristics.
In order to always represent the requirements of the development of China's advanced productive forces, it is necessary to bring the Party's theory, line, program, principles, policies and all endeavors of work into line with the law governing the development of the productive forces, give expression to what is required in promoting the release and development of social productive forces, especially in the development of advanced productive forces so that the living standards of the people improve steadily through the development of the productive forces.
The productive forces are the most dynamic and revolutionary factor. They are the ultimate decisive force of social development. The contradictions between the productive forces and the relations of production and between the economic base and the superstructure constitute the basic social contradiction. The movement of this basic contradiction determines the direction of the changes in the nature of society and the direction of social, economic, political and cultural development. The fundamental difference between socialism and capitalism lies in the difference between their relations of production and superstructures. The establishment and constant improvement of the socialist system has opened up a broad road to the release and development of our country's social productive forces. All relations of production and superstructures, irrespective of their nature, develop with the development of the productive forces. If they fail to keep up with the requirement of the development of the productive forces and thus become obstacles to the development of the productive forces and social progress, readjustments and changes are sure to take place.
We must have a profound understanding of the development trend and requirements of our country's social productive forces, focus on economic development and formulate and implement a correct line, principles and policies and take effective steps to promote the constant development of the advanced productive forces. Only by doing so can we really ensure that our Party always stand in the forefront of the times and maintain its advanced nature.
As the vanguard of the working class, our Party emerged in the historical arena as the representative of China's advanced productive forces at its very inception. The purpose of the new-democratic revolution led by our Party was to revoke the privileges of imperialists in China, eliminate exploitation and oppression by the landlord class and the bureaucrat-capitalist class, change the comprador and feudal relations of production and the rotten political superstructure built on such an economic base, put in place a new political superstructure based on the people's democratic dictatorship and smash the shackles that fettered the productive forces. After the founding of New China, we carried out the socialist transformation of agriculture, handicraft industry and the capitalist industry and commerce in order to establish the socialist relations of production, and, on that economic base, bring the socialist superstructure to perfection so as to further release and expand the productive forces. It is for the same purpose that we have since the Third Plenary Session of the 11th Party Central Committee implemented the reform and opening-up policies to adjust and reform the part of the socialist relations of production that is incompatible with the demand of the development of the productive forces, and that of the socialist superstructure that is incompatible with the economic base. Over the past twenty-plus years, we have, through bold explorations and practice, pushed forward reforms in the economic and political structures and other areas, which has greatly released and developed the country's social productive forces, bringing about tremendous changes in the national economic development and social progress.
The fundamental task of socialism is to develop the productive forces, increase the overall national strength of our socialist country and improve the people's living standards so as to reflect the superiority of socialism over capitalism. In all historical stages of the socialist society, the socialist system needs to improve and develop itself through reforms in response to the demand of the economic and social development. This is the only way to make the socialist system viable and dynamic. All comrades in the Party should firmly uphold the basic concepts about the socialist reform and development and conscientiously participate in them.
The development of human society is a historical process in which the advanced productive forces replace the backward ones. Socialist modernization must be built on the developed productive forces. The purpose of our efforts for modernization is, in the final analysis, to ensure that our productive forces be developed through reforms and development. All comrades in the Party, no matter what posts they are in, should check and review their work regularly to see whether it conforms to the requirements of the development of the advanced productive forces. If it does, keep working like that. If it does not, correct it where necessary. Only by doing so can the Communists give full expression to their advanced nature and to the spirit of the times.
Man is the most decisive factor in the productive forces. The Chinese working class, including intellectuals, is the basic force for the expansion of the advanced productive forces in China. The peasant class and other laboring people, closely united with the working class, constitute an important force for the development of the country's social productive forces. To raise the ideological and ethical standards and scientific and cultural levels of the workers, peasants, intellectuals and other laboring people and those of the entire population, upgrade their labor skills, increase their capacity for innovations and give full scope to their enthusiasm, initiative and creativity-these should remain the tasks of primary importance that our Party should perform in representing the requirements of the development of China's advanced productive forces.
Science and technology are the primary productive forces. They are a crystallization and a principal hallmark of the advanced productive forces. The rapid progress in science and technology has given a powerful shove-ahead to the productive forces of the world and the economic and social development of humanity. The future development of science and technology will produce new great leap-forwards. We must be sensitive to this objective trend. We must give full play to the superiority of China's socialist system on the one hand and master, apply and develop advanced science and technology on the other. We must vigorously promote progress in science and technology and innovation and use advanced science and technology to transform and uplift the national economy so as to achieve a leapfrog expansion of our productive forces. This, too, is an important duty our Party should perform in representing the requirements of the development of the productive forces.
Although we have made tremendous achievements in socialist modernization, the productive forces have generally remained underdeveloped in China which is still at the primary stage of socialism with a large population, a weak foundation and uneven economic and cultural development. To release and develop our productive forces will remain our central task for a long period of time to come. We must develop the advanced productive forces without letup. There still exist some backward modes of production that do not meet the requirements of the development of the advanced productive forces and those of the times. We should neither repel them summarily and unrealistically, nor be content with and protect them. Instead, we should base ourselves on the reality and create conditions for transforming, improving and upgrading these backward modes and, through long-time efforts, gradually make them advanced and viable.
We must, under the guidance of the Party's basic theories, basic line and basic program, stick to and improve the basic economic system with the public ownership playing a dominant role and all forms of ownerships developing side by side; the socialist market system; the diversified forms of distribution with the distribution according to work as the main modality; the opening-up program; the people's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the worker-peasant alliance; the people's congress system and multi-party cooperation and political consultation led by the Communist Party and the system of regional autonomy of ethnic minorities. We should at the same time actively and steadily promote the reform of the political structure to further expand socialist democracy, run the country according to law and build a socialist state under the rule of law. We will make unremitting efforts to constantly improve the socialist relations of production and superstructure and open up a broader thoroughfare for the release and development of the productive forces.
To ensure that our Party forever represent the orientation of the development of China's advanced culture, it is imperative that the Party's theories, line, program, principles, policies and all its work should orient toward modernization, the world and the future, reflect the requirements of developing a national, scientific and popular socialist culture, serve to upgrade the ideological and ethical standards and scientific and cultural levels of the whole nation and provide spiritual and intellectual support for the economic development and social progress.
Socialist society is one of all-round development and progress. The socialist modernization cause features a mutually supplementary and coordinated development of both material and spiritual civilizations. All comrades in the Party must have a comprehensive mastery of the dialectical relationship between the two civilizations and energetically promote socialist spiritual civilization while advancing material civilization. In contemporary China, to develop an advanced culture means to develop a socialist culture with distinctive Chinese characteristics and build socialist spiritual civilization.
We should have a firm grip on the development trend and requirements of China's advanced culture. We must never deviate from the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory. We should base ourselves on the practice of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, have our eyes on the frontline of the world science and culture, and develop a healthy, progressive, rich and colorful socialist culture with Chinese styles and characteristics to meet the growing spiritual and cultural needs of the people, and guide people to arming themselves with correct thinking and ideas so as to improve their mental outlook. That is also the fundamental expression and requirement for our Party to remain in the forefront of the times and maintain its advanced nature.
The kind of cultural orientation a political party follows and the kind of culture it promotes constitute its ideological and spiritual banner. Over the past 80 years, our Party has held high the banner of China's advanced culture in its march forward, worked hard to build and carry forward the new culture that reflects the requirements of revolution, development and reform, and cleaned up the old decadent and dying culture which was left over from the old society or infiltrated into China from abroad. As a result, the cadres and masses have been emancipated and greatly encouraged ideologically and mentally, and the Party and the people have a correct guiding ideology and a common ideal which have a great rallying force and reflect unity of will.
The fundamental task of developing a socialist culture is to turn people from generation to generation into citizens with lofty ideals, moral integrity, better education and a good sense of discipline. We should persevere in arming the people with scientific theories, guiding them with correct public opinions, shaping their outlook with noble ideas, and inspiring them with good cultural works. We must uphold and consolidate the status of Marxism as a guiding ideology, help people acquire a correct world outlook, philosophy of life and values, strengthen their belief in Marxism and socialism, build up their confidence in the reform, opening-up and modernization drive, increase their trust in the Party and the Government, and instill into people's mind such ideas as self-reliance, competition, efficiency, democracy, the legal system, and the pioneering and innovative spirit. We should continue to implement the strategy of invigorating the country through science and education, make education available to more people, improve the quality of education and the educational level of the whole country, and make greater efforts to develop the scientific and cultural undertakings. We should double our efforts for a publicity campaign on scientific knowledge, scientific approaches, scientific thinking and scientific spirit. A vital principle we must follow in developing China's advanced culture is to emphasize the central theme of the socialist culture, persevere in serving the people and socialism, and let a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend. We should master and develop all kinds of modern means of communication and promote the spreading of the advanced culture.
To promote the socialist ideological and ethical standards constitutes an essential component of and a key link in developing China's advanced culture. We must realize that we would lose the common objective of struggle and reject the accepted code of conduct if we only value material gains and money without thinking of ideals and moral standards. We should combine the rule of law with the rule of virtue in order to lay a lofty ideological and ethical foundation for a good public order and a healthy environment. We should advocate patriotism, collectivism and socialism among all people, combat and resist money worship, hedonism, ultra-egoism and other decadent ideas, enhance the Chinese people's national self-esteem, self-confidence, and the sense of pride, and inspire them to work unremittingly for the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
The socialist culture has become dominant in China. Because of the past and present reasons, however, there still exist some backward cultural phenomena in China such as superstition, ignorance, decadence and vulgarity, or even decadent cultural phenomena that corrode people's mind and jeopardize the socialist cause. We should try to eliminate backward culture, prevent and resolutely resist the corrosion by the decadent culture and erroneous ideas, and gradually reduce and remove the soil breeding the culture and ideas, through better policies, systems, education and management, and by changing prevailing customs and habits.
In developing the socialist culture, we must carry on and develop all the fine cultures, fully reflect the spirit of the times and creativity, and have the world perspective in a bid to enhance our inspiring capacity. We must inherit and develop the fine cultural traditions of the Chinese nation, the revolutionary cultural traditions the Party and the people have nurtured since the May 4th Movement (1919), and all the advanced civilization achievements mankind has ever created. With regard to the rich cultural legacies left over from China's history of several thousand years, we should discard the dross, keep the essence, and carry forward and develop it in the spirit of the times in order to make the past serve the present. At the same time, we must, in light of the new practices and requirements of the times and to satisfy people's needs for spiritual and cultural life, promote cultural innovations, flourish the advanced culture and get hundreds of millions of people closely around the great banner of the socialist culture with Chinese characteristics.
To ensure that our party always represent the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people, our Party must, in all its work, theories, line, program, principles and policies, always take the fundamental interests of the people as the starting point and purpose, bring into full play the people's enthusiasm, initiative and creativity, and ensure the people continued tangible economic, political and cultural benefits on the basis of steady social development and progress.
Our Party serves the people heart and soul, works for the public and assumes power for the people. This is the fundamental difference between our Party and all political parties of the exploiting classes. We must at all times respect both the law of social development and the people's status as the principal part in history, encourage efforts both for lofty ideals and for the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people, and stress both accomplishing the Party's tasks and serving the people's interests.
All the endeavors our Party has made over the past 80 years are, in the final analysis, for the interests of the overwhelming majority of the people. During the revolutionary wartime, our Party called on all its members to fight bravely, fear no sacrifice, and advance wave upon wave for the victory of revolution. After New China was founded, the Party exhorted all its members to remain modest and prudent, guard against conceit and impetuosity, and forever carry forward the hard-working revolutionary spirit. In the new historical era, the Party demands that all its members withstand the test of reform, opening-up and being in power, and lead the people in working hard for the realization of socialist modernization. All this is aimed at materializing, safeguarding and developing the interests of the overwhelming majority of the people and furthermore enabling the Party to maintain its blood-and-flesh contacts with the people.
The overall interests of the people are always composed of specific interests of the people from different quarters. All of our policies, measures and work should correctly reflect the relationships of various interests and help properly handle them. We should take into consideration and look after the interests of the people from different social strata and circles. However, to satisfy the interests and demands of the overwhelming majority of the people is the most important and should be given top priority. This has always been vital to the overall interests of keeping the Party in power, the country's economic, political and cultural development, the unity among the people of different ethnic groups and social stability. The interests of the overwhelming majority of the people are the vital and most decisive factor. This is a fundamental viewpoint of Marxism and leading organs and cadres at different levels must fully realize it and earnestly put it into practice.
Our party has always adhered to the principle of putting the interests of the people above everything else. Apart from the interests of the overwhelming majority of the people, the Party does not have any special interests of its own. All the Party's work must take the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people as the supreme criteria. All comrades in the Party should always uphold the basic viewpoint that they should do everything for the people and by relying on the people. We should adhere to the mass line of the Party by going down to the people at the grass-roots level to hear their views, reflect their will and pool their wisdom, so that all our policy decisions thus made and our work may conform to the reality and the demands of the masses. All cadres who are Party members must properly assume and exercise the power truly on behalf of the people, and in no way should they be allowed to abuse power for personal gains or form any vested interest groups. In the process of attaining the common prosperity of the people across the country, cadres who are Party members must correctly handle the relationships between becoming well-off early and late, and between personal prosperity and common prosperity. All leading Party cadres should be concerned about the country and the people before anything else; should be the first to bear hardships and the last to enjoy themselves; should support and help others first instead of only thinking about how to get rich themselves. The last thing they should do is to abuse power for unlawful interests. Leading cadres at all levels should always keep in mind the security and well-being of the people, show concern for their sufferings, and try hard to do useful and good things for them. Leading organs and leading cadres at all levels should pay particular attention to those who have encountered temporary difficulties in their work and life, put their problems on the top of the agenda for special consideration and solution and make proper arrangements for their employment and daily life. Only by taking good care of and serving the masses well, can we maintain the blood-and-flesh links with the people and remain invincible.
Representing the requirements of the development of China's advanced productive forces, representing the orientation of the development of China's advanced culture and representing the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people are interrelated and mutually supportive. They thus constitute an integral whole. To develop the advanced productive forces is a basic condition for developing an advanced culture and ensuring the people their fundamental interests. The people are the main force for creating the advanced productive forces and culture and the fundamental force for realizing their own interests. To ceaselessly develop the advanced productive forces and culture is, in the final analysis, aimed at meeting the growing material and cultural needs of the people and continuously realizing the fundamental interests of the people.
The requirements of the "Three Represents" are essential if our Party wishes to maintain its advanced nature and always remain the strong leading core in building socialism with Chinese characteristics. These requirements are consistent with the need of the Party to uphold Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory, and adhere to its nature of being the vanguard of the working class and its purpose of serving the people wholeheartedly. All comrades in the Party must unswervingly and comprehensively implement the requirements of the "Three Represents" in every aspect of the Party building and in the entire process of the Party leading the people in the reform, opening-up and socialist modernization.
III. Strengthen and Improve the Party Building in Accordance with the Requirements of the "Three Represents"
To rally the 1.2 billion and more people behind the socialist modernization drive in a large and multi-ethnic developing country like China, it is a must to have the strong leadership of the Communist Party of China. Otherwise, the country will fall into a mess and break up. It will not only fail to realize its modernization but also sink into a chaotic abyss. This is a conclusion drawn by reviewing the modern history of China's development and after analyzing the experiences and lessons of many countries in their development course.
To uphold the Party's leadership calls for improving its leadership. We must follow the basic theory and line of the Party, and strengthen and improve Party building in an overall and profound manner and in accordance with the requirements of the "Three Represents". This will enable our Party always to be in the forefront of the times in the historical process in which profound changes are taking place in the international situation, to maintain its role as the mainstay of the people of the whole country in the historical process of facing up to all kinds of risks and tests at home and abroad, and to remain the strong leading core in the historical process of building socialism with Chinese characteristics.
After 80 years of development, great changes have taken place in membership, status, environment and tasks of the Party. Our Party has evolved from one that led the people in the fight for seizing the power nationwide to one that has led the people in exercising the state power and to a party in power for a long period of time. It has developed from one that led the national reconstruction under external blockade to one going for all-round reform and opening-up. The number of new Party members has increased by a big margin, while cadres of a younger generation have been replacing the older ones, and a large number of young cadres have taken leading positions. This has injected new vitality in and given new challenges, as well, to the growth of the Party.
All comrades in the Party should proceed from the new realities and, in the spirit of reform, study and solve major theoretical and practical issues in Party building, so as to enable it to retain its progressiveness and purity, and be full of creativity, cohesiveness and fighting power.
To meet the requirements of the "Three Represents", we must uphold the Party's ideological line of emancipating our minds and seeking truth from facts. We must carry forward and promote the truth-seeking, realistic and innovative spirit. We must go about all the work of the Party and the state creatively and keep enriching and developing Marxism in practice.
Marxism is the fundamental guiding principle for the consolidation of the Party and the development of the country. It also constitutes the common theoretical foundation of the concerted efforts of the people of all ethnic groups. The fundamental tenets of Marxism must never be abandoned, otherwise we would get lost or come to failure in the pursuit of our cause due to a lack of a correct theoretical basis and ideological soul. That explains why we must always uphold the basic tenets of Marxism. In terms of theory, Marxism develops with the advance of the times. If we dogmatically cling to some individual theses and specific programs of action formulated for a special situation by authors of Marxist classics under the specific historical conditions in spite of the changes in historical conditions and present realities, we will have difficulty in forging ahead smoothly and we may even make mistakes because our thinking is divorced from reality. That is one reason why we have remained opposed to dogmatism toward the theory of Marxism. Our Party made mistakes and even suffered serious setbacks in some historical periods. The most important cause for that was the fact that the guiding ideology of the Party was divorced from Chinese reality at the time. It was after our Party restored and upheld the ideological line of emancipating the mind and seeking truth from facts that the Party corrected its mistakes, overcame its setbacks and forged ahead triumphantly by relying on the strengths of itself and the people. The experience and lessons our Party has in this regard have been reviewed systematically in its Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party and Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China. These are something that we must never forget. All comrades in the Party must uphold the scientific principles and spirit of Marxism, put changes in the right perspective and sum up fresh experience that people have gained from practice, so as to constantly enrich and develop the theory of Marxism.
Marx, Engels, Lenin and Comrades Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping were all shining examples of integrating theory with practice and of making theoretical innovations. Marx and Engels carried out extensive studies of the theoretical literature of their predecessors, critically assimilated their theoretical achievements and came up with their own theories far better than those of their predecessors. They had thus created a scientific thinking system for the liberation movement of the proletariat and mankind as a whole. Lenin shed light on the law concerning the imbalance in the economic and political development in the capitalist world. He came to the conclusion that the socialist revolution could succeed first in one or several countries and he led the October Revolution to victory. Integrating the fundamental tenets of Marxism-Leninism with the specific conditions of the Chinese revolution, Comrade Mao Zedong originated the theory of the new-democratic revolution with which he guided the Chinese revolution toward victory and led the Chinese people onto the road to socialism. Comrade Deng Xiaoping reviewed the negative and positive experience in the development of socialism in China and abroad, and formulated the theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, which has ushered China into a new period of vigorous development of the socialist cause.
The history of Marxism fully shows that emancipating the mind and seeking truth from facts are the powerful driving force behind great social progress. As social practice is a continuous process, we should keep renewing our ideas and be courageous in and good at making innovations in light of practical needs. We should take practice as the sole criterion for testing truth, subject ourselves to the guidance of the Party's basic theory, proceed from reality in everything we do and free ourselves on our own from outdated notions, practices and systems, from the erroneous and dogmatic interpretations of Marxism and from the shackles of subjectivism and metaphysics. We should adopt a scientific approach and make bold explorations in order that we think and act more in line with the objective reality, China's conditions in the primary stage of socialism, and the development of the times.
Our Party has a history of 80 years. It has had the great practice of creating and developing Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory. It has historical experience, both positive and negative and both Chinese and foreign, in developing socialism. We will be able to make fresh contributions to enriching and developing Marxism as long as we remain in the forefront of the times, base ourselves on new practice, try to understand the characteristics of the times, study major issues of immediate importance in accordance with the basic theory of Marxism, deepen our understanding of the laws governing the rule of the country by the Communist Party and the development of socialism and human society, and draw upon all scientific and new experience, thoughts and achievements.
To meet the requirements of the "Three Represents", we must uphold the Party's nature of being the vanguard of the working class and make sure it remain advanced. At the same time, in light of economic development and social progress, we must constantly consolidate the class foundation of the Party, expand its popular support and increase its social influence.
The Chinese working class is a product of China's social development, particularly the expansion of large-scale, socialized production since modern times. It has a strong sense of organization and discipline and is staunch and thoroughgoing in revolution. The Communist Party of China has identified itself as a political party of the Chinese working class ever since its founding and has remained the vanguard of the working class, which has laid a solid class foundation for maintaining its advanced nature.
With the development of reform, opening-up and modernization, the working class in China has expanded steadily. The qualities of the working class have improved markedly in terms of their political awareness, moral standards, and scientific, technical and educational level. It has become more progressive. All this has made the Party's class basis more solid. With intellectuals being part of the working class, the scientific, technical and educational level of the working class has been raised considerably. Now we have adopted the basic economic system under which public ownership plays a dominant role in the national economy while other forms of ownership develop side by side. We are shaping a socialist market economy and introducing strategic readjustments to the economic structure. Consequently some workers have changed their jobs. But this has not changed the status of the Chinese working class. On the contrary, this will serve to improve the overall quality of the working class and give play to its advantages as a group in the long run. The Chinese working class has always been the basic force for promoting the advanced productive forces in China. Our Party must remain the vanguard of the working class and unswervingly and wholeheartedly rely on the working class.
The main criterion to judge the nature of a political party is its theory and program. If it is Marxist and represents the correct orientation of social development and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people, the party is an advanced one and the vanguard of the working class. Our Party is a product of integration of Marxism-Leninism with the Chinese workers' movement. The emergence of the working class is an essential condition for founding the Party. During the period of democratic revolution, given the social conditions then, most of our Party members came from peasants and other laborers, quite a few from intellectuals and some from other revolutionaries of non-laborers' background. But the theory and program of our Party were Marxist and represented the correct orientation of China's social development. Our Party attached great importance to building up the Party ideologically and persisted in educating and arming all Party members with Marxist theory. It required Party members to join the Party not just organizationally, but first of all ideologically. It gave them guidance as to how to achieve the Party's program and tasks. All these enabled the Party to keep its nature of being the vanguard of the working class.
Since China adopted the policy of reform and opening up, the composition of China's social strata has changed to some extent. There are, among others, entrepreneurs and technical personnel employed by scientific and technical enterprises of the non-public sector, managerial and technical staff employed by foreign-funded enterprises, the self-employed, private entrepreneurs, employees in intermediaries and free-lance professionals. Moreover, many people frequently move from one ownership, sector or place to another, changing their jobs or capacity from time to time. This trend of developments will continue. Under the guidance of the Party's line, principles and policies, most of these people in the new social strata have contributed to the development of productive forces and other undertakings in the socialist society through honest labor and work or lawful business operations. They join workers, farmers, intellectuals, cadres and PLA officers and men in an effort to build socialism with Chinese characteristics. They, too, have made contributions to this cause.
To build socialism with Chinese characteristics is a great and arduous cause. It calls for the worthy people from all sectors who are loyal to the motherland and socialism to take action and lead other people in pushing forward this cause. The main criteria to admit a person into the Party are whether he or she works hard wholeheartedly for the implementation of the Party's line and program and meets the requirements for the Party membership. The basic components and backbone of the Party are those from workers, farmers, intellectuals, servicemen and cadres. At the same time, it is also necessary to accept those outstanding elements from other sectors of the society who have subscribed to the Party's program and Constitution, worked for the Party's line and program wholeheartedly, and proved to meet the requirements for the Party membership through a long period of tests. We should enhance the ethical standards and political awareness of our Party members through Party education. This will greatly increase the influence and cohesiveness of the Party in the society at large.
The theory on labor and labor value in a capitalist society advanced by authors of Marxist classics brings to light the operational features of the capitalist mode of production and its basic contradictions at that time. At present, we are putting in place a socialist market economy. But the conditions we are faced with are quite different from those the founders of Marxism faced and studied. In light of the new conditions, we should make a thorough study of the theory on labor and labor value in a socialist society with a view to achieving a better understanding of this theory. It is our fundamental objective of building socialism to ensure our people their prosperity and well-being. With economic development, our people will live a better life and their personal property will increase gradually. In view of this, it is not advisable to judge a person's political orientation simply by whether he or she owns property or how much property he or she owns. But rather, we should judge him or her mainly by his or her political awareness, moral integrity and performance, by how he or she has acquired the property, and how it has been disposed of and used, and by his or her actual contribution to the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics.
To meet the requirements of the "Three Represents", we must adhere to democratic centralism, establish and improve the scientific leadership system and working mechanism, give full scope to inner-Party democracy, resolutely safeguard the centralism and unity of the Party, and maintain and continue to enhance its vitality.
Democratic centralism is our Party's fundamental system of organization and leadership. Our basic requirement and objectives of upholding and improving democratic centralism are to create a political situation in which there are both centralism and democracy, both discipline and freedom, both unity of will and personal ease of mind and liveliness in the Party.
It is imperative to promote inner-Party democracy and give full play to the enthusiasm, initiative and creativity of the Party members and Party organizations at all levels. This is an important guarantee for the success of the Party cause. We should take effective measures to ensure Party members their democratic rights, broaden channels for inner-Party democracy and increase their knowledge of and involvement in Party affairs. All major issues in relation to the Party work must be addressed through discussions among Party members and after hearing their views fully. Effective mechanisms should be set up to make sure that all ideas and suggestions of Party members at the grass-roots level or in Party organizations at a lower level can promptly reach those at a higher level. The Party organizations at a higher level should fully enlist the views of Party members and Party organizations at a lower level so as to ensure that their decisions be made through a more scientific and democratic process. In accordance with the principles of collective leadership, democratic centralism, case-specific consultations, and decision through meetings, we should improve the internal deliberation and decision-making mechanism of Party committees, give play to the role of plenary sessions of Party committees, and improve the decision-making procedures of standing committees of Party committees. All the major policy decisions of a Party committee must be made through discussions by the committee and nobody should be allowed to have the final say alone. We should improve the system of division of work and individual responsibility under the collective leadership by Party committees for greater efficiency. Neither collective leadership nor individual responsibility should be overemphasized at the expense of the other. We should vigorously promote people's democracy through the development of inner-Party democracy.
We should strengthen and improve the leadership system of the Party and come up with better leadership and governance modalities in accordance with the principles of stressing the overall interests while coordinating those of all quarters concerned. The purpose is to ensure the role of Party committees as the core of leadership while giving full scope to the functions of the people's congresses, central and local governments, the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), non-governmental organizations and others. Party committees should strengthen their leadership over the people's congresses, governments, the CPPCC and non-governmental organizations through rational, standardized and institutionalized mechanisms. Meanwhile, the Party leading groups and Party members who hold leading positions in these institutions and organizations must implement, without any hesitation, the line, principles and policies of the Party and the decisions of Party committees while performing their duties in accordance with law. Leading officials at all levels must firmly put into practice the guiding principles and arrangements of the Party Central Committee.
All Party members should enhance their awareness of the principle of democratic centralism and implement the principle to the letter, and at the same time improve their ability to do so. It is important to learn leadership skills, ways and means that are called for in fulfilling the new tasks under the new situation, and combine the adherence to the Party's leadership with the promotion of people's democracy, performance of duties strictly in keeping with law and respect for objective law. Institution of better systems is vital as it bears on the overall and long-term interests and defies constant changes. It is essential to improve the systems underlying democratic centralism, and ameliorate the leadership systems and working mechanisms of the Party so as to provide institutional safeguards for the correct implementation of the principle of democratic centralism. We must resolutely resist the impact of Western political models such as the multi-party system or separation of powers among the executive, legislative and judicial branches. We should firmly avoid making arbitrary decisions and taking peremptory actions in violation of democratic centralism on the one hand, and weak and incompetent leadership on the other.
With progress in the reform, opening-up and development of a socialist market economy, the social fabrics, economic composition, forms of organization, means of employment, interests of different sectors, and modalities of distribution have increasingly diversified. We should be sober-minded about this and pay attention to the trend. Otherwise, our country would be deprived of cohesiveness. Thus it is vital to uphold the centralized leadership and unity of the Party and the state and safeguard the authority of the Party Central Committee. The guiding principles, development goals, major policies, legal system and important work arrangements, among others, of the Party and the state must be consistent and centralized. No localities, departments and institutions should go their own way. The grass-roots organizations of the Party, which underpin the work of the Party and its effectiveness, should constantly work on their self-improvement in response to the new situation and new tasks.
To meet the requirements of the "Three Represents", we should implement, in an all-round manner, the principle of fostering a contingent of more revolutionary, younger, better educated and professionally more competent cadres and that of giving equal importance to both professional competence and political integrity. We should deepen the reform of personnel system so as to produce a contingent of high-caliber officials who are capable of assuming important responsibilities and withstanding the test of trials and tribulations.
Cadres are a decisive factor, once a political line is decided upon. It is all the more important to bring forth leading officials who are more politically-minded and good at leading the Party and ruling the country and who pay attention to overall interests. A large number of high-caliber leading officials hold the key to the consolidation and development of China's socialism and its continued prosperity amidst the fierce international competition.
We should adhere to the principle of the Party assuming the responsibility for cadres' affairs, improve personnel management, accelerate the reform of personnel system and manage our human resources in a more scientific, democratic and systematic manner. We should make our human resources management more transparent and ensure people their access to information about cadre selection and appointment, and their right to participate in and monitor the process. In this regard, the principle of appointment and promotion through open and fair competition on the basis of merits should be upheld, and measures to this effect should be adopted so as to encourage officials to work harder and get them prepared for both promotion and demotion. We should improve the supervision of appointment and promotion of officials, and the system and methods for their performance assessment. Resolute measures should be taken to prevent and redress malpractice in the appointment and promotion of officials.
The training of young cadres is a strategic task that will ensure the long-term stability of the Party and the state. In order to assume leadership responsibilities, young officials must increase their understanding of Marxism, enhance their political integrity, and improve their capacity for serving the people. They must be good at making a correct judgment of the situation and the overall interests from a political perspective, and must know how to work under complicated conditions. Party committees at all levels should help and encourage young leaders to temper themselves in harsh conditions or in the forefront of important tasks, and make arrangements for this accordingly.
The advance of our times and development of our undertakings determine that the Party and the state need more and more talented people of various kinds. We must lose no time in training professionals of all kinds, providing them with incentives and giving full play to their capabilities. Further efforts should be made to create in the whole Party and society a favorable atmosphere where there is respect for knowledge and talent, and where outstanding people can easily come to the fore. Leading officials should have the insight to spot talents, the resolve to use them, the passion to love them and the ways to attract them, and should know how to bring out the best in their subordinates and how to call people of talent to the service of the Party and the state. They should, with lofty ideals and spirit, guide and inspire various talented people to render meritorious service to the state and the people. At the same time, leading officials should care for and trust people of talent and do their best to create good working conditions for these people. It is necessary to expedite the establishment of an income distribution mechanism which is designed to keep the talented and bring out the best in them so as to put in place a system which guarantees that their rewards are commensurate with their endeavors and contributions. We should, through our work on all fronts, create a climate in which people of talent will come forward in large numbers.
To meet the requirements of the "Three Represents", we must adhere to the principle that the Party must handle Party affairs well and must enforce strict discipline. Party organizations at all levels must be strict with their Party members who are cadres in respect of requirements, education, administration and supervision and be firm in rooting out the negative phenomena and corruption existing within the Party.
Adherence to this principle is an important guarantee for the maintenance of the Party's progressiveness and purity and for the consolidation of its status as the ruling party. Without good Party building, there will be no successful governance. So we must be strict in Party discipline. We should have a deeper understanding of the loss of political power by some Communist Parties in the world that had long been ruling parties and learn a lesson from them. The longer the Party is in power, the more necessary it is for the Party to strengthen self-improvement, and the stricter it should be with its members and cadres.
The principle of being strict with Party members must be implemented in Party building in ideological, political and organizational fields as well as work style and must be truly reflected in all the aspects of education, management and supervision of Party organizations at all levels, all the Party members and cadres. All the Party organizations and members should act in strict compliance with the Party Constitution and other regulations of the Party and observe Party discipline to the letter. Leading cadres at all levels should maintain a high degree of self-discipline, self-examination, self-caution and self-motivation, and should always attach importance to study, political awareness and integrity. They should often use criticism and self-criticism as a weapon in waging active ideological struggles and adhere to truth while rectifying mistakes. Party organizations at all levels should strengthen their capability of dissolving their own contradictions, face up to and settle existing problems and never avoid or whitewash them.
The Party's work style bears on the image of the Party, the trend of popular support and the survival of the Party. It is essential to strengthen in an all-round way the development of the Party's ideological style, study style, work style, leadership style and the cadres' life style. In light of the new realities, it is necessary to carry forward the Party's fine style, namely, integration of theory with practice, close link with the people and criticism and self-criticism. In the meantime, it is necessary to foster a new style on the basis of summing up new and practical experiences. All practices that run counter to the requirement of the development of the Party's cause or the interests of the people should be resolutely eliminated. At present, special attention should be paid to overcoming the state of lethargy and of seeking no progress, doing away with the grave alienation from the people and standing firmly against the unhealthy tendency of formalism and bureaucracy. Cadres at all levels must be results-oriented in their work at all times and, on all occasions, work creatively, think and worry about what the people think and worry about, and work faithfully for the good of the people.
All comrades in the Party must fully realize that to combat corruption and build a clean government are vital for the survival of our Party. We must carry to the end the development of the Party's working style, the building of a clean government and the fight against corruption. In this connection, it is essential to have a profound understanding of the long-term, arduous and complex nature of the work against corruption. Not only is it necessary to be prepared for protracted battles, but also intensify our efforts to address the current issues. We should adhere to the integrated approach in combating corruption, addressing both its symptoms and root cause and build a solid protective dam ideologically against corruption and its erosion. At the same time, we should strive to remove the soil and conditions breeding corruption through creative institutional measures and work harder to prevent and address corruption at its root. The power in our hands is given by the people. Cadres at all levels are public servants of the people and must be subjected to the supervision by the people and the law. We should, through enhanced supervision within the Party, by the law and by the people, establish and improve mechanisms that will restrict and supervise the exercise of power in accordance with law. It is imperative to strengthen the supervision over leading cadres and ensure that they exercise their power appropriately. All the Party members, leading cadres in particular, must always be clean and honest and have a strong moral integrity. They must be able to withstand the test of reform, opening-up and being in power, as well as the test of power, money and badger games. They will by no means be allowed to abuse power for personal gains, take bribes or bend the law. Party organizations and leading cadres at all levels must take a clear stand to oppose corruption. All cases of corruption must be brought to light and all corrupt elements brought to justice without tolerance or lenience. The Party is no safe haven for corrupt elements within the Party. We must win the people's confidence with tangible achievements in the building of the Party's style and of a clean government.
All in all, in view of the heavy historical responsibility upon our shoulder and given the impact of international and domestic complexities as well as the test of various risks, it is imperative to constantly strengthen and improve the Party building and temper all Party members into firm Communists. This will enable our Party to forever remain the vanguard of the Chinese working class and that of the Chinese people and the Chinese nation as well, faithfully represent the requirements of the development of China's advanced productive forces, the orientation of the development of China's advanced culture, and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people, and serve as the leadership core for the Chinese socialist cause.
IV. Continue to Strive for the Fulfillment of the Basic Line and Historic Mission of the Party
China has entered a new development stage of building a well-to-do society in the whole country and accelerating the socialist modernization drive. All comrades in the Party must be mindful of danger and stay prepared for adversities in times of peace, guard against conceit and impetuosity, continue to push for overall progress in reform, opening-up and the modernization drive and make vigorous efforts to roughly achieve socialist modernization by the middle of this century.
The program of a political party is a banner. In every historical stage, be it one of revolution, reconstruction or reform, our Party has never failed to have both a basic program for a given stage, namely, the minimum program, and the maximum program of long-term objectives. We believe in the unity of the minimum and maximum programs.
We firmly believe in the basic Marxist tenet that human society will inevitably move toward communism. Communism can only be realized on the basis of a fully developed and highly advanced socialist society. In the communist society, there will be abundant material wealth, and people will have a very high realm of thought and be able to develop themselves freely and in an all-round way. It must be pointed out, though, that the realization of communism will be an extremely protracted historical process. In the past, our understanding of this issue was quite superficial and simplistic. As a result of so many years of practice, our understanding of the issue today is much more comprehensive and profound. We may make scientific predictions about the direction in which human society may evolve in the future. But as for how things will develop specifically, the answer to this question should come from practice. We must never deviate from the correct course of progress, but it is neither possible nor necessary to envisage or describe in great details the development course in the distant future. The past experience has fully proved that it will easily lead to fantastic illusion. This is something that everyone ought to know full well.
All comrades in the Party should set up a lofty communist ideal, fortify their conviction and spur themselves on by holding to high ideological and moral standards. More importantly, they should make unremitting efforts in a down-to-earth manner to realize the Party's basic program for the current stage and put their heart into each single piece of work now. To care about the immediate interests only while forgetting the lofty ideal will result in the loss of the direction of progress. But to talk big about the lofty ideal without doing any practical work will get one divorced from reality.
China is now in the primary stage of socialism and will remain so for a long time to come. This is the initial stage of the long historical process of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. Along with economic development and all-round social progress, the building of socialism in China will enter a higher stage of development when conditions are ripe. All comrades must unswervingly implement the Party's basic line for the primary stage of socialism, consistently concentrate on economic development, stick to the Four Cardinal Principles (adherence to the socialist road, the people's democratic dictatorship, the leadership of the Communist Party, and Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought - Tr.), press ahead with reform and opening-up, strive for the realization of the basic program of the Party for the present stage and constantly advance the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics into the future.
In keeping with the economic, political and cultural requirements of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, all comrades in the Party and all people in the country should strive to achieve the development goals set for the Tenth Five-Year Plan. We should focus on development through economic restructuring and by relying on reform, opening-up and scientific and technological progress with a view to improving people's living standards and constantly pushing for economic growth and social progress. Efforts should be made to properly balance the relations among reform, development and stability, correctly understand and handle the contradictions among the people and always maintain social stability and unity.
All undertakings to build socialism with Chinese characteristics, and in fact, everything that we do should aim not just at meeting people's immediate material and cultural needs, but also at improving the qualities of the people or achieving their all-round development. This is the essential requirement of Marxism regarding the building of a new socialist society. We will constantly advance the all-round development of human beings based on a higher level of the material and spiritual civilization of the socialist society.
Efforts must be made to enable all people across the country to lead a well-to-do life as soon as possible and to continue to uplift their living standards. The Party's policy to get the population rich must be adhered to. On the basis of economic growth, efforts should be made to increase income for urban and rural residents, constantly improve their living conditions, including food, clothing, housing, transport and daily necessities, improve the social security system, and medical and health facilities, with a view to bettering their life. When some people and some regions get rich first, others will be brought along and through this process, common prosperity of the entire population will be gradually achieved.
It is essential to give full play to the initiative and great creativity of the general public and ensure that they properly manage their affairs according to law and realize their aspirations and interests. It is necessary to continue to press ahead with the political restructuring, develop socialist democracy, improve the socialist legal system and ensure the full exercise by the people of their rights to democratic election, decision-making, administration and supervision.
Efforts should be made to upgrade the ideological and ethical standards of the entire people, improve their cultural and scientific levels and bring about an all-round development of their ideology and cultural life. We should conduct effective political education, develop education, science and technology, enliven socialist culture and ensure each and every individual full access to education and cultural achievements so as to enrich their spiritual ethos and diversify their cultural life.
It is necessary to enhance balance and harmony between man and nature so that people can work and live in a sound and beautiful ecological environment. We will adhere to the strategy of sustainable development and correctly handle the relations between economic development on the one hand and population, resources and the environment on the other, improve the eco-system and beautify the living environment, and improve public and social welfare facilities. We will try to pioneer a path of civilized development featuring a thriving economy, an affluent life and a sound eco-system.
To advance an all-round development of man is the precondition for and the basis of boosting economic and cultural development and improving the material life of the people, and vice versa. The more comprehensively people develop, the more material and cultural wealth they will create for society and the better their life will be. Conversely, the more adequate the material and cultural life is, the better man will achieve his all-round development. The development of social productive forces, the economy and culture is a historical process of gradual and endless progress. All-round human development, too, is a historical process of gradual and endless progress. The two processes should interact and help each other forward.
Given the new situation, we must continue, on the basis of economic development, to press ahead with the modernization of our national defense and armed forces, and build up defense capability with a view to safeguarding state security and national unity. It is essential to adhere to the fundamental principle of the Party's absolute leadership over the army. We should meet the general requirements of building armed forces that are "qualified politically and competent militarily and that have a fine style of work, strict discipline and adequate logistic support", and follow the military strategy for the new era as our overriding guideline. We should stress the quality of army-building and strengthen our armed forces by relying on science and technology and run the army according to law in an effort to build the People's Liberation Army (PLA) into a strong, modern and revolutionary regular army. We should strengthen the building of national defense reserves, develop the science, technology and industry of national defense and improve the system of national defense mobilization. We should also continue to consolidate and reinforce the unity between the army and the government, and that between the army and the people.
Comrades and Friends,
Ever since its founding, the Chinese Communist Party has all along held high the great banner of patriotism and waged an epic struggle for the unity and rejuvenation of the country. Since New China came into being, the Chinese Communists of several generations have all made unremitting efforts toward the complete reunification of our motherland. Under the principle of "peaceful reunification and one country, two systems", we have successfully resolved the questions of Hong Kong and Macao, both left over from history, and are working hard to seek an early solution to the question of Taiwan and to accomplish the great cause of national reunification. The status of Taiwan as a part of China shall in no way be allowed to change. The Chinese Communists are rock firm in their resolve to safeguard state sovereignty and territorial integrity. While we do have the greatest sincerity to work for a peaceful reunification, we cannot and will not undertake to renounce the use of force. We are fully capable of checking any attempt to split China by seeking Taiwan's "independence". It is the bounden duty of the Chinese Communists to end the state of separation between Taiwan and China's mainland and achieve the complete reunification of China. Here I appeal to all our compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Straits and to those overseas: Let's unite and fight against separatism and continue to bring forward the cross-Straits relations and the process of peaceful reunification of the motherland. The complete national reunification represents the aspirations of the people and is a historical trend that no one and no force can stop.
Comrades and Friends,
The world needs peace. The people want cooperation. Nations aspire for development. Society seeks progress. This is the trend of our times. In the last century, mankind underwent the scourge of two world wars and endured the hardships of the Cold War and confrontation, thus paying a heavy price. Nobody in China or in any other country wishes to see any new hot war or cold war or turmoil break out in any part of the world, pursuit of neo-hegemonism and power politics by any country or group of countries and widening of the development gap between North and South or the gap between the rich and the poor. The people of China and the rest of the world all long for a lasting world peace and for a stable and peaceful life. They aspire for a new international political and economic order and for democracy in international relations. They yearn for common development and prosperity for all and are willing to work together for a better future.
Peace and development are the themes of our times. World multi-polarization and economic globalization are developing despite twists and turns. Science and technology are advancing rapidly. Competition in terms of overall national strength is becoming increasingly fierce. New and profound changes are taking place in the world alignment of forces and the distribution of interests. Up to now, both questions of peace and development remain to be resolved. The world we live in is still far from tranquil. Peace and development complement each other. World peace is the precondition for enhanced common development of all countries whereas such common development is an important basis for the preservation of world peace. The questions of peace and development are in essence the question of North and South. If developed countries can effectively support and assist developing countries in their economic and cultural development under the principle of equality, fairness, reciprocity and mutual benefit and help the latter shake off poverty and backwardness as soon as possible, there will be an important foundation for achieving peace and development.
Along with all the peace- and freedom-loving people in the world, the Communist Party and people of China have always worked for the lofty cause of promoting world peace and development. In the world's great struggle against Fascism, in the sacred cause of the Asian, African and Latin American people fighting for national independence and liberation, and in the tireless efforts to promote the establishment of a fair and rational new international order, we have always stood on the side of justice and worked in unity with the people of all countries and all the progressive forces in the world.
In the new century, the Communist Party and Government of China stand ready to join hands with all countries and peoples who love peace and crave for development and progress so as to secure an international environment of lasting peace in a common endeavor to push forward the wheel of history toward the magnificent goal.
The purposes of China's foreign policy are to safeguard world peace and promote common development. We adhere to an independent foreign policy of peace. We have carried out friendly exchanges and mutually beneficial cooperation with all countries and treated one another as equals on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence in a ceaseless effort to advance the cause of human progress. The Chinese Communist Party will, under the principles of independence, complete equality, mutual respect and non-interference in each other's internal affairs, conduct extensive exchanges and strengthen cooperation with all political parties and organizations in the world and further promote friendship between the peoples and development of relations between states.
We have all along maintained that countries should abide by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and the universally recognized basic norms governing international relations, that the affairs of a country should be decided by the government and people of that country and that matters in the world should be handled by the governments and people of all countries through consultations on the basis of equality. We oppose hegemonism and power politics of all forms. The international community needs to set up a new security concept with mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and collaboration at its core and work to create a peaceful international environment of long-term stability and security. Countries should step up their economic and technical exchanges and cooperation and gradually transform the inequitable and irrational international economic order so that all will win and coexist as a result of economic globalization.
Our world is diversified and colorful. The diversity of civilizations is the basic feature of human society and also the driving force behind the progress of human civilization. Respect should be given to the history, culture, social system and model of development of each individual country. Diversity of the world is a reality that should be recognized. Different civilizations and social systems should enjoy long-term coexistence and draw upon and benefit from each other in the process of competition and comparison and achieve common development while seeking common ground and shelving differences. We will continue to work with the people of all countries for a world of lasting peace and universal prosperity.
Comrades and Friends!
Every struggle that the Chinese people fought during the one hundred years from the mid-19th to the mid-20th century was for the sake of achieving independence of our country and liberation of our nation and putting an end to the history of national humiliation once and for all. This great historic cause has already been accomplished. All endeavors by the Chinese people for the one hundred years from the mid-20th to the mid-21st century are for the purpose of making our motherland strong, the people prosperous and the nation immensely rejuvenated. Our Party has led the entire Chinese people in carrying forward this historic cause for fifty years and made tremendous progress, and it will successfully attain the objective through hard work in the coming fifty years.
The young people of all ethnic groups in China represent the future of our country and nation and the hope for prosperity and development of our cause. It calls for your efforts, young people, to accomplish the grand cause of socialist modernization and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The Party and people have ardent expectations of you. It is hoped that you love your country and your people, stand tall and aim far, broaden your vision and give full play to your intelligence and wisdom on the broad arena of reform, opening-up and the modernization drive. You will demonstrate the value of your life and work hard to achieve feats that will live up to the expectations of the people and the times.
All that we have achieved has gone down in the annals of history. There is still a long way to go. The realization of truth is a process of continued progress, so is the changing of the world. We shall work unremittingly in pursuit of truth and fight for truth. Under no circumstances should comrades of the Party stand still and refuse to move forward, nor should they fear hardship and difficulties. All comrades must closely unite with the people of all ethnic groups in China and strive to build our great motherland into a strong, prosperous, democratic and culturally advanced modern socialist country so as to make new and even greater contributions to humanity.
Long live our great motherland!
Long live the great Chinese people!
Long live the great Communist Party of China!