History of Tibet

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Second, establishing the Council for the Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs and the Commission in Charge of Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs. The Council for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs was set up in 1912 to operate directly under the State Council in its capacity as a central state organ to take charge of Tibetan and Mongolian affairs. It was renamed the Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs in 1914. In 1927, the Republic of China moved its capital to Nanjing, now capital of Jiangsu Province, and the Nanjing Government was founded. Before long, the Nanjing Government announced the establishment of the Commission in Charge of Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs. The commission members included people of great influence in the Mongolian and Tibetan areas, such as the Ninth Panchen Erdeni, the 13th Dalai Lama and Tibetan government representatives stationed in Nanjing including Gongjor Zongnyi, Zhamgyia Hutogtu and Master Xeirab Gyamco, a very famous Buddhist master who served as vice chairman of the commission.


Third, giving additional honorific titles to the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni, and having representatives preside over the reincarnation and enthronement ceremonies for them. In the early days of the Republic of China, the 13th Dalai Lama, who was deprived by the Qing government of his honorific title and left Tibet for India, managed to get in touch with the Government of the Republic of China, and expressed his wish to return to Tibet. On October 28, 1912, Interim President Yuan Shikai announced the restoration of the honorific title of the Dalai Lama. Before long, the 13th Dalai Lama returned home. To ease internal contradictions between the Dalai Lama and the Panchen Erdeni, Yuan, on April 1, 1913, issued an order to give an additional honorific title to the Ninth Panchen Erdeni to honor what he had done to defend the unification of the motherland.


In December 1933, when the 13th Dalai Lama died, the local government of Tibet submitted a report to the Central Government in accordance with historical precedence. The Central Government granted the late master the additional honorific title of Master in Defense of the Country and sent Huang Musong, Chairman of the Commission in Charge of Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs, to Tibet to mourn his demise. In 1938, under the auspices of Regent Living Buddha Razheng, Lhamo Toinzhub in Qinghai was found and determined as the reincarnated soul boy of the late 13th Dalai Lama in accordance with the religious rituals and historical precedence. In 1940, Wu Zhongxin, Chairman of the Commission in Charge of Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs, went to Tibet, in his capacity as central government representative, to preside over the ceremony enthroning the 14th Dalai Lama.


When the Ninth Panchen Erdeni passed away in Qinghai on his way back to Tibet in December 1937, the Nationalist Government granted him the honorific title of Master. And in 1938, the Central Government sent Dai Chuanxian, President of the Examination Yuan, to Garze to mourn the demise of the Ninth Panchen Erdeni. In early 1949, the Nationalist Government sent its envoy to announce that Guanbo Cidain was the 10th Panchen Erdeni, and he attended celebrations held at the Tar Monastery in Qinghai. In August, Guan Jiyu, Chairman of the Commission in Charge of Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs, was sent by the Nationalist Government to preside over the enthronement ceremony of the 10th Panchen in Qinghai.


Fourth, bringing in upper-class monks and lay people to participate in state administration. During the period of the Republic of China, whenever the National Assembly met, there would be Tibetan delegates who participated. For example, from November 15 to December 25, 1946, when the National Assembly met in Nanjing to work on the Constitution of the Republic of China, 17 delegates including Tudain Sangpi and Jijigmei, came from Tibet.


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