White Paper: Freedom of Religious Belief in Xinjiang

Comment(s)打印 E-mail China.org.cn 2016-06-02

一、新疆的宗教历史I. History of Religions in Xinjiang
新疆的宗教发展演变是一个长期的历史过程。不晚于新石器时期,新疆远古居民就产生了原始宗教观念。公元前4世纪起,祆教(即琐罗亚斯德教)、佛教等相继传入新疆,逐步形成了多种宗教并存的格局,并延续至今。The evolution of religions in Xinjiang was a long historical process. The ancient residents of Xinjiang developed primitive religious ideas as early as in the Neolithic Period. From the fourth century BC, Zoroastrianism, Buddhism and some other faiths were introduced into Xinjiang one after another. Gradually there came into being a pattern wherein a variety of religions coexisted, which continues today.
新疆的宗教发展演变,大致经历了四个阶段,即原始宗教阶段、佛教为主要宗教的多种宗教并存的形成阶段、伊斯兰教与佛教并立为主要宗教的多种宗教并存的演变阶段、伊斯兰教为主要宗教的多种宗教并存的发展阶段。The evolution of religions in Xinjiang went through four stages: the stage of primitive religion, the formation stage for the coexistence of a variety of religions with Buddhism as the major one, the evolution stage for the coexistence of many religions with Islam and Buddhism as the two major ones, and the development stage for the coexistence of a variety of religions with Islam as the major one.
公元前4世纪以前,新疆流行的是原始宗教。至今新疆许多民族都还程度不同地保留着原始宗教的观念及遗俗。此后,祆教经中亚传入新疆。约公元前1世纪佛教传入新疆后,逐渐形成了以佛教为主要宗教的多种宗教并存格局。4世纪至10世纪,祆教流行于新疆各地,吐鲁番地区尤为盛行,当时的高昌地方政权为此专门设置了管理机构。这一时期,佛教进入鼎盛阶段,塔里木盆地周缘各绿洲佛寺林立,僧尼众多,形成了于阗、疏勒、龟兹、高昌等著名佛教中心。道教于5世纪前后传入新疆,主要盛行于吐鲁番、哈密等地,至清代传播至新疆大部分地区。摩尼教和景教(基督教聂斯脱利派)于6世纪相继传入新疆。9世纪中叶,信奉摩尼教的回鹘人进入吐鲁番地区,建造寺院,开凿洞窟,翻译经典,绘制壁画。10世纪至14世纪,景教随着许多地方回鹘等民族改信而兴盛,当时的疏勒、叶尔羌、于阗、轮台、高昌、哈密、阿力麻里(今霍城县境内)等地都是传教区Before the fourth century BC primitive religion was practiced in Xinjiang. Many ethnic groups of Xinjiang still retain some concepts and practices of primitive religion to different degrees. Later, Zoroastrianism was introduced into Xinjiang via Central Asia. Around the first century BC Buddhism was introduced into Xinjiang, and gradually a pattern came into being wherein many religions coexisted with Buddhism as the major one. From the fourth to the 10th century Zoroastrianism became prevalent throughout Xinjiang, particularly in the Turpan area. For this, the local authorities of Gaochang set up a special administrative agency. During this same period Buddhism reached its peak. In oases on the periphery of the Tarim Basin Buddhist temples arose in great numbers, with a multitude of monks and nuns. Khotan, Kashgar (Shule), Kucha (Qiuci), Gaochang and other famous Buddhist centers took shape. Taoism was introduced into Xinjiang around the fifth century, becoming prevalent mainly in Turpan and Kumul (Hami). It spread to most parts of Xinjiang in the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). Manichaeism and Nestorianism were introduced into Xinjiang one after the other in the sixth century. In the middle of the ninth century, the Huihu people, who believed in Manichaeism, entered the Turpan area, where they built temples, dug caves, translated scriptures and painted frescoes. From the 10th to the 14th century, Nestorianism flourished as the Huihu people and some other ethnic peoples converted to it in many parts of Xinjiang. At that time Nestorianism was preached in Kashgar, Yarkant, Khotan, Bugur (Luntai), Gaochang, Hami, Almaliq (now in Huocheng County), and a few other places.
9世纪末10世纪初,伊斯兰教传入新疆南部,新疆原有宗教格局再次发生变化。喀喇汗王朝接受伊斯兰教后,于10世纪中叶向信仰佛教的于阗王国发动了40余年的宗教战争,11世纪初攻灭于阗,将伊斯兰教强制推行到这一地区。由此形成了南疆以伊斯兰教为主、北疆以佛教为主,伊斯兰教与佛教并立的格局。这一阶段早期,祆教、景教、摩尼教等宗教亦比较盛行。但随着伊斯兰教的不断传播,这些宗教日趋衰落。In the late ninth and early 10th centuries, Islam was introduced into southern Xinjiang, changing the religious pattern of Xinjiang again. After the Kara-Khanid Khanate accepted Islam, in the mid-10th century it launched a religious war against the Buddhist Kingdom of Khotan, which lasted more than 40 years. In the early 11th century the Kara-Khanid Khanate conquered Khotan and imposed Islam in that region. Thereafter, Islam dominated southern Xinjiang while Buddhism dominated northern Xinjiang, the two coexisting. In the early period of this stage Zoroastrianism, Nestorianism and Manichaeism were also very popular. But with the spread of Islam, these religions gradually declined.
14世纪中叶东察合台汗国时期,统治者以战争等强制手段,将伊斯兰教逐渐推行到塔里木盆地北缘、吐鲁番盆地和哈密一带。至16世纪初,新疆形成了以伊斯兰教为主要宗教、多种宗教并存的格局,原来当地居民信仰的祆教、摩尼教、景教等逐渐消失,佛教、道教仍然存在。17世纪初,卫拉特蒙古人接受了藏传佛教。约自18世纪始,基督教、天主教、东正教相继传入新疆。新疆以伊斯兰教为主要宗教、多种宗教并存的格局延续至今。The rulers of the Eastern Chagatai Khanate in the mid-14th century spread Islam to the northern edge of the Tarim Basin, Turpan Basin and Hami area by warlike and other compulsory means. By the early 16th century many religions coexisted in Xinjiang, with Islam as the predominant one. Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and Nestorianism gradually disappeared, although Buddhism and Taoism clung on. In the early 17th century the Oirat Mongols accepted Tibetan Buddhism. Beginning in the 18th century, Protestantism, Catholicism and the Eastern Orthodox Church were introduced into Xinjiang one by one. A pattern featuring coexistence of multiple religions, with Islam as the principal one, continues today in Xinjiang.
新疆的宗教历史表明:一教或两教为主、多教并存是新疆宗教历史的基本特点,交融共存是新疆宗教关系的主流;宗教必须与其所处时代和人文环境相适应,实现本土化,才能得以延续;不同宗教间的战争和同一宗教不同教派的纷争,致使人们没有自由选择宗教信仰的权利。The religious history of Xinjiang shows that coexistence of multiple religions with one or two dominant was a basic characteristic, and blending and coexistence made up the mainstream religious relationships of Xinjiang. A religion should adapt itself to the times and human environment, and achieve localization, so that it can continue. History shows that wars between different religions and disputes between different sects of the same religion deprive people of the free choice of religion.
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