Comrades and Friends,
We gather ceremoniously here today to celebrate, together with the people of all ethnic groups across the country, the 80th anniversary of the founding of the Communist Party of China and along with all people in the world who love peace and pursue progress, look to the bright future of the development of China and the world.
The Communist Party of China had only some 50 members at its birth 80 years ago and what it faced was a calamity-ridden old China. But today, 80 years later, our Party has become a big party that has been in power for more than 50 years and has more than 64 million members and what the Chinese people see is a prosperous socialist motherland. The tremendous change is a historic miracle in the development of the Chinese nation.
Reviewing the course of struggle of the Party and the people in last century, we feel infinitely exultant and proud. Looking into the great journey of the Party and the people ahead in the new century, we are filled with confidence and strength that we are bound to win.
I. Achievements and basic experience of the Communist Party of China in the 80-year struggle
Invariably, the people pioneer their road of advance in the movement of social contradictions; so do they seek, reveal and develop incessantly the truth that guides their advance from practice and by comparison in their historical activities.
Eighty years ago, amidst the torrential anti-imperialist and anti-feudal struggle of the people of all ethnic groups of China and in the tempestuous movement of the proletarian revolution in the world, the Communist Party of China was founded. This is the inevitable result of the development of social contradictions and deepening struggle of the people in the modern times of China.
After 1840, the invasion by Western imperialist powers reduced China to the status of semi-colonial and semi-feudal society and subjected the Chinese people to twofold repression by imperialism and feudalism. The national crisis and social crisis were unprecedentedly grave. From the Opium Wars, through the Movement of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, the 1898 Reform Movement and the Yihetuan Movement, the Chinese people carried out dauntless struggles and numerous people with lofty ideals were trying to explore strenuously for the road of salvaging the country and the nation. But all the attempts ended in failure one after another, although they helped promote progress in China under given historical conditions. The 1911 Revolution led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, which overthrew the autocratic monarchy that had ruled China for several thousand years, was of great significance in promoting China’s social progress. Yes, it did not succeed in altering the semi-colonial and semi-feudal social nature of China and the miserable destiny of the Chinese people, either.
Facts show that neither the self-improvement movements and reformism, the old peasant wars and the democratic revolution led by the revolutionaries of the bourgeoisie that did not touch the foundation of feudalism nor other solutions that ape western capitalism can accomplish the national mission of saving the nation from subjugation and ensuring its survival and the historical tasks against imperialism and feudalism. China was then looking forward to a new social force that could find advanced theories leading to a path of salvaging the country and the nation.
It was exactly at that time, in 1917 and 1919, two major events took place in Russia and China, that is, the October Revolution of Russia and the May 4 movement of China. The salvoes of the October Revolution brought the advanced theory of Marxism-Leninism to China. Starting from the May 4 movement, the Chinese working class began to cut a striking figure as an advanced social force in the country. At the same time, a number of advanced intellectuals held high the banner of democracy and science and opened up a path for disseminating the new ideas and new theories in China. In 1921, the Communist Party of China emerged just as the times called in the process of applying Marxism-Leninism in the Chinese workers’ movement.
From then on, the great historical mission of leading the anti-imperialist and anti-feudal revolutionary struggle, winning national independence and people’s liberation and invigorating the Chinese nation has fallen upon the shoulders of the Communist Party of China. The Chinese revolution thus entered a brand new period of development.
From the Opium War (1840-1842) to the founding of the Communist Party of China, and from the founding of the Party to the present, China has experienced two completely different periods of 80 years. In the first 80-year period, the feudal rulers surrendered the country's sovereign rights under humiliating terms, the whole society was thrown into utter chaos caused by wars, the country became impoverished and weak and the people lived in hunger and cold. In the second 80-year period, the Chinese people, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China, have got united and unprecedentedly organized, overcame numerous difficulties and won one victory after another in their revolutionary struggle. Since the founding of New China, the economy and society have developed rapidly; the country has become increasingly prosperous; the people's social status, living standards and cultural and educational level have risen markedly. The comparison of the two periods of 80 years has made the Chinese people and all the patriotic forces of the Chinese nation fully aware that it is precisely the leadership of the Communist Party of China that has enabled the country to materialize the great historical transformation from the most miserable circumstances to a situation that promises a bright future. Without the Communist Party, there would have been no New China. With the Communist Party, China has put on an entirely new look. This is the fundamental and most important conclusion drawn by the Chinese people from their long years of struggle.
The memorable days and glorious achievements of the 80 years of our Party leading the people to fight are like a huge picture scroll unfurled before the people of the world, meandering yet full of power and grandeur, vigorous yet bright and colorful.
We have fulfilled the task of new democratic revolution and realized national independence and the liberation of the people. We founded the People's Republic of China after defeating the Japanese militarist aggression and overthrowing the Kuomintang reactionary rule through the Northern Expedition (1926-1927), the Agrarian Revolutionary War (1927-1937), the War of Resistance Against Japan (1937-1945) and China's War of Liberation (1945-1949). The Chinese have since stood up, and the development of the Chinese nation has since ushered in a new era.
We have established a socialist system and realized the most extensive and most profound social transformation in the Chinese history. We have creatively materialized the transformation from new democracy to socialism and established the basic system of socialism in an all-round way, enabling this big country in the orient whose population accounts for a quarter of the world total to enter the socialist society. This is a big leap in China's social change and historical progress, and also serves as a powerful support and impetus to the cause of socialism in the world.
We have created the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics and started a correct road to the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. Marked by the Third Plenary Session of the Eleventh Central Committee of the CPC, our country has entered a new period of development of the cause of socialism. Basing ourselves on the long period of socialist construction, we have practiced new policies of reform and opening to the outside world and formulated the basic theory, line and program of our Party in the primary stage of socialism after summing up both the internal and external historical experience and through hard exploration. Even in a situation where world socialism experienced serious twists and turns and domestic and foreign situations changed drastically, our Party steadfastly stood its ground like a firm rock in midstream, and socialism in China has displayed its vigor and vitality.
We have established a state power of people’s democratic dictatorship, with the Chinese people being the masters of their own destiny. Though China is an ancient country with a civilization of more than five thousand years, it is only after our Party came to power that the people being the real masters of their country, their society and their own destiny has become a reality. This represents a fundamental change in the social and political status of the Chinese people. It marks China’s realization of a great leap from centuries-old feudalistic autocratic politics to people’s democratic politics.
We have built an independent and relatively complete national economic system, with our economic power and comprehensive national strength enhanced markedly. It has taken us just a little more than half a century not only to put an end to the backward state of poverty and blankness characteristic of the old China, but also set up a modern industrial system with a complete range of production. The annual gross domestic product (GDP) has increased by 56 times since the founding of New China. The strength of our economy, national defense and science and technology has been markedly enhanced. Our country has edged into the advanced ranks in the world in many areas of industry, agriculture, national defense, science and technology. The 1.2 billion-plus Chinese people have not only solved the problem of food and clothing but also secured in general a relatively comfortable life.
We have consistently promoted the development of socialist culture and the cultural life of the people all over the country is getting richer and more varied. Upholding the guiding role of Marxism, we have educated the people in patriotism, collectivism and socialism and made vigorous efforts to promote progress in socialist culture and ideology. We have persistently carried forward the excellent cultures of all ethnic groups of the country and actively absorbed what is advanced in other civilizations in order to make our socialist culture increasingly flourish. The ideological and ethical standards and the educational, scientific and cultural qualities of the people have kept improving, exhibiting to the world a new mental outlook of the Chinese people.
We have thoroughly put an end to the loose-sand state of the old China and realized a high degree of unification of the country and unparalleled unity of all ethnic groups. We have abrogated the unequal treaties imposed upon China by Western powers and all the privileges of imperialism in the country. The feudalistic segmentation of the country has gone forever on this land of China. The 56 ethnic groups breathe the same air, share the same fate and join their hearts as one, evolving a socialist relationship among all ethnic groups featuring equality, unity and mutual aid. All political parties and people’s organizations unite as one, help each other and share weal and woe. All socialist laborers, patriots endorsing socialism and patriots supporting national reunification have formed the broadest possible patriotic united front for the reunification and prosperity of the motherland. The successful return of Hong Kong and Macao to the motherland has fulfilled the long-cherished wishes of the whole nation. The exchanges between compatriots on the two sides of the Taiwan Straits have been increasing. The ultimate resolution to the Taiwan issue and the accomplishment of the reunification of the motherland are bound to come true.
We have forged a people’s army under the absolute leadership of the Party and built a strong national defense. We created a revolutionary path of encircling the cities from the rural areas and seizing state power by armed force. With the people’s army as the backbone, we relied on the people and armed them. We persisted in educating the officers and men in the Party’s theory and program and defeated the well-equipped ferocious domestic and foreign enemies in the prolonged revolutionary wars. The People’s Liberation Army has always upheld the purpose of serving the people whole-heartedly. It has played a major role in consolidating national defense, resisting aggression, safeguarding the socialist system and peaceful work of the people, and taking part in socialist construction of the country. Our country’s national defense has constantly been enhanced; steady progress has been made in the drive to build a revolutionary, modern and regular army. The People’s Liberation Army led by our Party is the staunch pillar of the people’s democratic dictatorship, a great wall of steel in defense of the motherland and an important force in socialist construction.
We have adhered to an independent foreign policy of peace, making important contributions to the lofty cause of world peace and development. We have thoroughly ended the history of humiliating diplomacy in modern China and effectively safeguarded state sovereignty, security and national dignity. We have actively advocated and safeguarded the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence, resolutely opposed the hegemonies and power politics with the strong domineering over the weak. We have upheld principle and justice, striving to let justice prevail and safeguarding the legitimate rights and interests of the vast developing countries, and pushed the establishment of a just and reasonable new international political and economic order. The international standing and influence of socialist China are growing with each passing day.
Facts have fully proved that the Communist Party of China is worthy of a great, glorious and correct Marxist political party and that it deserves to be the force at the core that leads the Chinese people in the incessant efforts to break new ground.
The outstanding achievements in China’s revolution, construction and reform are the results of the joint efforts of the people of all ethnic groups of the country, the results of endless and unremitting efforts made by people with lofty ideals, and also the results of the selfless devotion of generation upon generation of Chinese Communists.
We cherish dearly the memory of Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi, Zhu De, Deng Xiaoping, Chen Yun and other late proletarian revolutionaries of the older generation who made great contributions to China’s revolution, construction and reforms and to the founding, consolidation and development of the Communist Party of China. We cherish dearly the memory of the revolutionary martyrs who sacrificed their lives heroically for the sake of founding, defending and building of New China. We cherish dearly the memory of all the pioneers who fought for the independence and liberation of the Chinese nation in modern times. Their meritorious deeds for the motherland will ever be remembered in the annuals of history!
The people are the true makers of history. On behalf of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, I would like to extend my salute to the broad masses of the workers, peasants, intellectuals, all democratic parties, people’s organizations and patriotic personages in all walks of life; and to the People’s Liberation Army, the armed police and officers and men of the public security forces throughout the country; my cordial greetings to compatriots in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, the Macao Special Administrative Region and Taiwan as well as all overseas Chinese; and my heartfelt thanks to the people and friends in all the countries who live on good terms with us, care for and support China’s revolution, construction and reforms!
The 80 years of the Communist Party of China are 80 years of constant pursuit for truth and pioneering and creation by integrating Marxism-Leninism with China’s practice; they are 80 years of ceaseless and unremitting hard struggle for the liberation of the nation, the prosperity of the country and the happiness of the people; and they are 80 years of withstanding endless tests and growing steadily in strength in the course of accomplishing the historical missions.
The practice of the eighty years tells us that it is imperative to always persist in integrating the fundamental principles of Marxism-Leninism with the specific situation in China, persist in taking scientific theories as the guide and unswervingly follow our own road. This is the most essential experience we have drawn from the summing up of our Party’s history. Marxism is a powerful ideological weapon for us to understand and transform the world; it serves as a guide to action in our revolution, construction and reforms. Marxism is not a dogma. Only by being correctly applied and constantly developed in practice, does it exhibit great vitality. The first generation of the collective leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Mao Zedong at the core and the second generation of the collective leadership of the Party Central Committee with Comrade Deng Xiaoping at the core led our Party in persisting in closely combining the basic principles of Marxism-Leninism with China’s concrete practice, resulting in the formation of Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory. The two great theoretical achievements constitute Marxism that have been localized in China, embodying both the basic principles of Marxism-Leninism and the splendid thoughts of the Chinese nation and the practical experiences of the Chinese communists. It is exactly because we have had Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory as the guide, is it possible for our Party to lead the people in overcoming all hardships and setbacks and winning one victory after another. As the great crystallization of the practical experiences and collective wisdom of the Party and people, Deng Xiaoping Theory is the best continuation and creative development of Mao Zedong Thought under the new historical conditions. It has made major contributions to creating a completely new situation in China’s cause of socialism. Holding high the great banner of Deng Xiaoping Theory, all the comrades in the Party are continuing to study new situations and resolve new problems, working to promote creatively and in an all-round manner the great cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. The key to upholding Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought in the new historical period lies in persistent use of Deng Xiaoping Theory to observe the present-day world and contemporary China, incessantly sum up practical experience and generalize it in the new theoretical light and open up new ways forward.
The practice of the eighty years tells us that it is essential to always rely firmly on the masses of the people, sincerely work for the interests of the people and draw inexhaustible strength from the masses of the people on the road of advance. Maintaining the flesh-and-blood ties with the masses of the people is the fundamental guarantee for our Party to overcome difficulties and risks and make continuous success in our cause. In no time and under no circumstances, can the stand of sharing the common fate with the masses of the people be changed, the purpose of serving the people wholeheartedly be forgotten, and the viewpoint of historical materialism that the people are the real heroes be discarded. We must always take what reflects the will and interests of the people as both our starting point and end point in all work we do; we must always take reliance on the wisdom and strength of the people as the basic line of work in promoting our cause.
The practice of the eighty years also teaches us that we must always consciously strengthen and improve Party building, continuously enhance the creativity, rallying power and combat capability of the Party, and always maintain the vigor and vitality of the Party. If we are to do China’s affairs well, the key lies in our Party. We must make incessant efforts to strengthen Party building in close conjunction with the development of the situation and the Party’s central tasks. We must be good at summing up experience, uphold the truth, correct mistakes and be modest and prudent. We must have the courage to face up the problems existing in the ranks of Party members and cadres and resolve them by relying on all Party members and the masses of the people. This is where the vigor and vitality of the Party lies. We must continue to forge ahead with the new great project of Party building centering round the basic issue of what kind of Party to build and how under the new historical conditions so as to further revolve the two major historic subjects of enhancing the abilities of administration and art of leadership and resisting corruption, guarding against degeneration and warding off risks.
Reviewing the course of struggle and the basic experience over the past 80 years and looking into the arduous tasks and bright future in the new century, our Party should continue to stand in the forefront of the times and lead the people in marching from victory to victory. In a word, we must always represent the development trend of China’s advanced productive forces, the orientation of China’s advanced culture, and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people in China (hereinafter referred to as “Three Represent’s”)
II. Correctly understand and fulfil the requirements of the “Three Represent’s” in an all-round way
In the new century, the great historical tasks for our Party are to continue the modernization drive, accomplish the great cause of the reunification of our motherland, safeguard world peace and promote common development. Facing the profound changes in the domestic and international situations, our Party should follow closely the progressive trends of the world and unite and lead people of all ethnic groups throughout the country in seizing the opportunities and taking up challenges to accomplish the three major historical tasks successfully. To this end, we must unswervingly fulfil the requirements of the “Three Represent’s”. The “Three Represent’s” are the foundation underlying all our efforts to build the Party, the cornerstone for exercising political power and a source of strength of our Party. They are also the fundamental requirements for us to push Party building in an all-round way in the new century, constantly bring forth new ideas in theories, institutions and science and technology, and win fresh victories in building socialism with Chinese characteristics.
In order to remain a representative of the requirements of the development of China’s advanced productive forces, it is necessary to bring the Party’s theory, line, program, principles, policies and all work into line with the law governing the development of productive forces, make them reflect what is required in promoting the release and development of social productive forces, especially in the development of advanced productive forces so that the living standards of the people improve steadily through the development of productive forces.
Productive forces are the most dynamic and the most revolutionary factor. It is also the ultimate decisive force of social development. The contradictions between productive forces and the relations of production and between economic base and superstructure constitute the basic social contradiction. The movement of this basic contradiction determines the direction of the changes in the nature of society and the direction of social, economic, political and cultural development. The fundamental difference between socialism and capitalism lies in the difference between their relations of production and superstructures. The establishment and constant improvement of the socialist system has opened up a broad road for the release and development of our country’s social productive forces. All relations of production and superstructures, irrespective of their nature, develop with the development of productive forces. If they fail to keep up with the requirement of the development of productive forces and have thus become obstacles to the development of productive forces and social progress, readjustments and changes are sure to take place.
To be sensitive to and quickly come to grip with the development trend and requirements of our country’s productive forces and take practicable steps to promote the constant development of the advanced productive forces by taking economic development as the central task and by formulating and implementing correct lines, principles and policies – these are the fundamental expression and fundamental requirements for our Party to stand in the forefront of the times and maintain its advanced nature.
As the vanguard of the working class, our Party emerged in the historical arena as the representative of China’s advanced productive forces at its very inception. The purpose of the new democratic revolution led by our Party was to abrogate the privileges of imperialism in China, eliminate exploitation and oppression by the landlord class and the bureaucrat-capitalist class, change the comprador feudal production relations and the rotten political superstructure rooted in such economic base, establish a new political superstructure with the people’s democratic dictatorship as the core and release from the roots the fettered productive forces. After the founding of New China, we carried out socialist transformation of agriculture, handicraft industry and the capitalist industry and commerce in order to establish the socialist relations of production, and, on that economic base, bring the socialist superstructure to perfection so as to further release and develop productive forces. It is for the same purpose that we have since the Third Plenum of the 11th Party Central Committee carried out reforms and opening up policies to adjust and reform the part of the socialist relations of production that is incompatible with the demand of the development of the productive forces and to adjust and reform the part of socialist superstructure that is incompatible with the economic base. Over the past twenty-plus years, we have made bold explorations and practice and pushed forward the reforms in economic and political structures and other areas and greatly released and developed the country’s social productive forces, bringing about tremendous changes in the national economic development and social progress.
The fundamental task of socialism is to develop productive forces, enhance the comprehensive national strength of our socialist country and improve the people’s living standards and in this way reflect the superiority of socialism over capitalism. In all historical stages of the socialist society, it is necessary to make the socialist system improve and develop itself through reforms in line with the demand of the economic and social development. Only by so doing, is it possible to make the socialist system filled with vigor and vitality. All comrades in the Party should firmly implant in mind this basic viewpoint and awareness on socialist reform and development.
The development of human society is a historical process of advanced productive forces replacing the backward ones. Socialist modernization must be built on the basis of developed productive forces. Our purpose of realizing modernization is, fundamentally, to obtain developed productive forces through reforms and development. All comrades in the Party, no matter what posts they are in, should check and review their work regularly to see whether it conforms to the requirements of the development of advanced productive forces. If it does, hold on to it without wavering. If it does not, correct it where necessary. Only by doing so, is it possible for Communists to give a full expression to their advanced nature and to the spirit of the times.
Man is the most decisive factor in productive forces. The Chinese working class, including intellectuals, is the basic force that pushes the advanced productive forces forward in China. The peasant class and other laboring people, closely united with the working class, constitute a major force that pushes the country’s productive forces forward. To raise the ideological and ethical standards and scientific and cultural levels of the workers, peasants, intellectuals and other laboring people and the entire population and improve their labor skills and creativity and give full scope to their enthusiasm, initiative and creative power – these should remain the tasks of primary importance that our Party should perform in representing China’s advanced productive forces.
Science and technology are the primary productive forces and a concentrated expression and a hallmark of advanced productive forces. The rapid progress in science and technology has given a powerful shove-ahead to the productive forces of the world and the economic and social development of humanity. The future development of science and technology will result in new and major leaps. We must quickly and accurately come to grip with this objective trend and give play to the superiority of China’s socialist system and combine it with the mastering, application and development of advanced science and technology so as to make big progress in science and technology and innovation, use advanced science and technology to transform and upgrade the national economy and achieve a leap-frog expansion of our productive forces. This, too, is an important duty our Party should perform in representing the requirements of the development of productive forces.
Although we have made tremendous achievements in socialist modernization, the productive forces in China have generally remained underdeveloped as China is still at the primary stage of socialism and it has a large population, a weak foundation and uneven economic and cultural development. To release and develop our productive forces will remain our central task for a long period of time to come. We must develop the advanced productive forces without letup. As to some existing backward modes of production that do not go along with the requirements of the development of advanced productive forces and the development of the times, we can not repel them summarily and unrealistically; nor should we take the attitude of being contented with what the things are and protecting what is backward. Instead, we should be realistic and prepare the conditions for transforming, improving and upgrading them and, through long-time efforts, gradually make them advanced and applicable.
We must, under the guidance of the Party’s basic theories, basic line and basic program, stick to and improve the basic economic system with public ownership as the main body and the common development of multiple sectors; we must persist in and improve the socialist market system; we must hold on to and improve the multiple ways of distribution with the distribution of “to each according to work done” as the main distribution modality; we must continue to improve our opening-up program; we must hold on to and improve the people’s democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on worker-peasant alliance; we must hold on to and improve the people’s congress system and multi-party cooperation and political consultation led by the Communist Party and the system of regional autonomy of minority nationalities while actively and steadily promoting the reform of the political structure to further expand socialist democracy, rule the country by law and build a socialist state under the rule of law. Through unremitting efforts, we shall constantly improve the socialist relations of production and superstructure and open up a broader thoroughfare for the release and development of productive forces.
To make our Party forever represent the orientation of the development of China’s advanced culture is to make the Party’s theory, line, program, principles, policies and all its work reflect the requirements of the national, scientific and popular socialist culture that develops toward modernization, the world and the future, enable them to upgrade the ideological and ethical qualities and scientific and cultural qualities of the whole nation and to provide the motive power and support culturally and intellectually.
Socialist society is a society for the development and progress in all areas of endeavor. The socialist modernization is an undertaking that features mutual supplementation and harmonious development of material civilization and spiritual civilization. The comrades of the whole Party must have a comprehensive mastery of the dialectical relations between the two civilizations and while promoting material civilization, it is necessary to promote socialist spiritual civilization. In contemporary China, to develop advanced culture is to develop culture with distinct Chinese characteristics and to build socialist spiritual civilization.
We should have a firm grip on the development trend and requirements of China’s advanced culture. We must persist in taking Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory as the guide, base ourselves on the practice of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, fix our attention on the frontline of the development of the world’s science and culture, develop healthy, progressive, rich and colorful socialist culture with Chinese styles and characteristics to meet the increasing demands of the people, and direct the people to get mentally equipped and upgraded with correct ideas. That is also the fundamental expression and requirement for our Party to remain in the forefront of the times and maintain its advanced nature.
The kind of cultural orientation a political party follows and the kind of culture it promotes constitute the party’s ideological and spiritual banner. Over the past 80 years, our Party has held high the marching banner of China’s advanced culture, worked hard to build and carry forward the new culture that reflects the requirements of revolution, construction and reform, and cleaned up the old decadent and dying culture which was left over from the old society and infiltrated into China from abroad. As a result, the cadres and masses have been emancipated and encouraged ideologically and mentally, and a correct guiding ideology and a common ideal have taken shape among the whole Party and the people throughout the country to rally popular feeling and unify public wills.
The fundamental task for developing the socialist culture lies in cultivating citizens from generation to generation who have lofty ideals, moral integrity, a better education and a good sense of discipline. We should persevere in arming the people with scientific theories, guiding the people with correct public opinions, molding the people with noble minds, and inspiring the people with superior works. We must stick to and consolidate the guiding status of Marxism, help people build up the correct outlook on the world and life and values, have firm belief in Marxism and socialism, increase confidence in the reform, opening-up and modernization drive, strengthen trust in the Party and the government, and increase the awareness about self-reliance, competition, efficiency, and democracy and the rule of law, as well as the pioneering and innovation spirit. We should continue to implement the strategy of invigorating the country through science and education, further popularize education, enhance its quality and level of the whole society, and make greater efforts to develop scientific and cultural undertakings. We should double our efforts to publicize scientific knowledge, scientific approaches, scientific thinking, and scientific spirit. A vital principle we must follow in developing China’s advanced culture is to emphasize the central theme of the socialist culture, persevere in serving the people and socialism, and let a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend. We should master and develop various kinds of modern communication means and promote the spreading of the advanced culture.
Strengthening socialist ideological and ethical building constitutes the essential content of and a key link in developing China’s advanced culture. We must be aware that people will lack common objective of struggle and reject the accepted code of conduct if we only stress material gains and money to the neglect of ideals and morality. We should combine the rule of law with the rule of virtue in order to build a lofty ideological and ethical foundation for maintaining a good public order and practice. We should advocate the ideology of patriotism, collectivism and socialism among all people, combat and resist money worship, hedonism, ultra-egoism and other decadent ideas, enhance the Chinese people’s national self-esteem, self-confidence, and the sense of pride, and stimulate them to make unremitting efforts for the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.
The socialist culture has become dominant in China. Because of the past and present reasons, however, there still exist some backward cultures in society that have features of superstition, ignorance, decadence and vulgarity, and even exist some decadent cultures that corrode people’s mental world and jeopardize the socialist cause. We should remold the backward cultures, prevent and resolutely resist the corrosion to people by decadent cultures and various erroneous ideological concepts, and gradually reduce and root out the soil on which they rely to breed, through improving our policy and system, strengthening education and management, and transforming social traditions.
In developing the socialist culture, we must carry on and develop all the fine cultures, fully reflect the spirit of the times and creativity, and have the world perspective in a bid to enhance our inspiring capacity. We should make positive efforts to inherit and develop the fine cultural traditions of the Chinese nation, the revolutionary cultural traditions formed among the Party and people since the May 4th Movement (1919), as well as all the advanced civilization achievements mankind has ever created. With regard to the rich cultural legacies left over from China’s history of several thousand years, we should select the essence and discard the dross therefrom, and carry forward and develop them in line with the spirit of the times in order to make the past serve the present. At the same time, we must, in line with new practices and requirements of the times and by taking account of the needs for cultural life of the people, promote cultural innovations, flourish the advanced culture and attract hundreds of millions of people to rally closely around the great banner of the socialist culture with Chinese characteristics.
To always represent the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people, our Party must, in all kinds of work including Party’s theory, line, program, principle and policy, persevere in taking the fundamental interests of the people as the starting point and purpose, bring into full play people’s enthusiasm, initiative and creativity, and enable the people to constantly obtain tangible economic, political and cultural benefits through continuous social development and progress.
The fundamental difference between our Party and all other political parties of exploiting classes lies in the fact that the former serves the people heart and soul, works for the public and assumes power for the people. At any time, we must continue to uphold the congruity between respecting the law of social development and respecting the people’s status as the principal part in history, the agreement between striving for the lofty ideals and for the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people, and the agreement between fulfilling the Party’s various tasks and realizing the people’s interests.
All the endeavors our Party has done over the past 80 years are, in the final analysis, aimed at the interests of the overwhelming majority of the people. During the revolutionary wartime, our Party called on all its members to fight bravely and fear no sacrifice, and advance wave upon wave for the victory of revolution. After new China was founded, the Party exhorted all its members to remain modest and prudent, guard against conceit and impetuosity, and retain the revolutionary spirit of arduous struggle for good. In the new era, the Party demands that all its comrades be able to withstand the test of reform, opening-up and being in power, lead the people to work assiduously for the realization of socialist modernization. All this is aimed at continuously accomplishing, safeguarding and developing the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people through always maintaining the Party’s blood -and -flesh contacts with the people.
The general interests of the people are always composed of specific interests of different circles. All of our policies, measures and work should correctly reflect the relationships of various interests and help properly handle them, and we should take into consideration and look after the interests of the people from different social strata and circles. However, what is the most important is to give top priority to and satisfy the interests and demands of the overwhelming majority of the people. This has always been vital to the overall interests of keeping the Party in power, the country’s economic, political and cultural development, and the unity among the people of different ethnic groups and social stability. The interests of the overwhelming majority of the people are the vital and most decisive factor. This is a fundamental viewpoint of Marxism and leading organs and cadres at different levels must fully realize and earnestly practice it.
Our Party has always adhered to the principle of putting the interests of the people above everything else. Apart from the interests of the overwhelming majority of the people, the Party does not have any special interests of its own. All the Party’s work must take the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people as the supreme criteria. All comrades in the Party should always uphold the basic viewpoint that they should do everything for the people and by relying on the people. We should adhere to the mass line of the Party by going down to the people at the grass-roots level to hear their voices, reflect their will and pool their wisdom, so that make all policy decisions thus made and our work may conform to the reality and the demands of the masses. All cadres who are Party members must properly assume and exercise the power truly on behalf of the people, and in no way should they be allowed to abuse power for personal gains or form any vested interest groups. In gradually realizing the common prosperity of the people across the country, cadres who are Party members must correctly handle the relationships between becoming well-off early and late, and between individual and common prosperity. All leading Party cadres should be the first to concern about the country and the people and the last to enjoy life; be the first to bear hardships and the last to enjoy themselves; support and help others first instead of only thinking about how to get rich themselves, let alone seeking unlawful interests by abusing power. Leading cadres at all levels should always keep in mind the safety and well-being of the masses, show concern for the sufferings of the masses, and try hard to do useful and good things for the masses. Leading organs and leading cadres at all levels should pay particular attention to those who have encountered temporary difficulties in their work and life, and make proper arrangements for their employment and life by listing their problems on the top of the agenda for special consideration and solution. Only by making substantial efforts to take care of and serve the masses well, can we maintain the blood-and-flesh links with the people and remain invincible.
Representing the requirements of the development trend of China’s advanced productive forces, representing the orientation of China’s advanced culture and representing the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people are interrelated and interact and constitute an integral whole. To develop advanced productive forces is a basic condition for developing advanced culture and realizing the fundamental interests of the people. The People are the main body to create advanced productive forces and culture as well as the fundamental force to realize their own interests. To ceaselessly develop advanced productive forces and culture is, in the final analysis, aimed at meeting the growing material and cultural needs of the people and continuously realizing the fundamental interests of the people.
The requirements of the “Three Represent’s” are the basic requirements for our Party to maintain its advanced nature and always remain the strong leading core in building socialism with Chinese characteristics. It is in conformity with the Party’s upholding of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory, adherence to its nature of being the vanguard of the working class, and its purpose of serving the people whole-heartedly. All comrades in the Party must unswervingly implement the requirements of the “Three Represent’s” in all aspects of the Party building and in the entire process of the Party leading the people in the reform, opening-up and modernization drive.
III. To strengthen and improve the Party building in accordance with the requirements of the “Three Represent’s”
To get the 1.2 billion and more people to march toward the target of socialist modernization in a large and multi-ethnic developing country like ours, it is a must to have the strong leadership of the Communist Party of China. Otherwise, the country will fall into a mess and break up. It will not only fail to realize its modernization but also sink into a chaotic abyss. This is a conclusion drawn by reviewing the modern history of China’s development and after analyzing the experiences and lessons of many countries in their development course.
To uphold the Party’s leadership calls for improving its leadership. We must follow the basic theory and line of the Party, and strengthen and improve the Party building in an overall and profound manner and in accordance with the requirements of the “Three Represent’s”. This will enable our Party to be in the forefront of the historical process in which profound changes are taking place in the international situation, to maintain its role as the mainstay of the people of the whole country in the historical process facing up to all kinds of risks and tests at home and abroad, and to remain the strong leading core in the historical process of building socialism with Chinese characteristics.
After 80 years of development, great changes have taken place in the contingent of the Party members, their status and environment, and the tasks of the Party. Our Party has evolved from one that led the people in the fight for seizing the power nationwide to one that has led the people in exercising the state power and to a party in power for a long period of time. It has developed from one that led the national reconstruction under external blockade to one going for all-round reform and opening-up. The number of new Party members has increased by a big margin, while cadres of a younger generation have been replacing the older ones, and a large number of young cadres have taken leading positions. This has injected new vitality in and given new challenges, as well, to the growth of the Party.
All comrades in the Party should proceed from the new realities and, in the spirit of reform, study and solve major theoretical and practical issues in Party building, so as to enable it to retain progressiveness and purity, and be full of creativity, cohesiveness, and fighting power.
To meet the requirements of the “Three Represent’s”, we must uphold the Party’s ideological line of emancipating our minds and seeking truth from facts. We must carry forward and promote the spirit of practicality, truth-seeking and courage in innovation. We must go about all the work of the Party and the state creatively and keep enriching and developing Marxism in practice.
Marxism is the fundamental guiding principle for the consolidation of the Party and the development of the country. It also constitutes the common theoretical foundation of the concerted efforts of the people of all ethnic groups. The fundamental tenets of Marxism must never be abandoned, otherwise, we would get lost or come to failure in the pursuit of our cause due to a lack of a correct theoretical basis and ideological soul. That explains why we must always uphold the basic tenets of Marxism. In terms of theory, Marxism develops with the times. If we dogmatically cling to some individual theses and specific programs of action formulated for a special situation by authors of Marxist classics in the specific historical conditions in spite of the changes in historical conditions and present realities, then we will have difficulty in forging ahead smoothly and we may even make mistakes because our thinking is divorced from reality. That is one reason why we have remained opposed to dogmatism toward the theory of Marxism. Our Party made mistakes and even suffered serious setbacks in some historical periods. The most important cause for that was the guiding ideology of the Party was divorced from Chinese reality at the time. It was after our Party restored and upheld the ideological line of emancipating the mind and seeking truth from facts that the Party corrected its mistakes, overcame its setbacks and forged ahead triumphantly by relying on the strengths of itself and the people. The experience and lessons our Party has in this regard have been reviewed systematically in its Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party and Resolution on Certain Questions in the History of Our Party Since the Founding of the People's Republic of China. These are something that we must never forget. All comrades in the Party must uphold the scientific principles and spirit of Marxism, put changes in the right perspective and sum up fresh experience that people have gained from practice, so as to constantly enrich and develop the theory of Marxism.
Marx, Engels, Lenin and comrades Mao Zedong and Deng Xiaoping were all shining examples in integrating theory with practice and in making theoretical innovations. Marx and Engels carried out extensive studies of the literature on the theoretical thinking of their predecessors, critically assimilated their theoretical achievements and came up with their own theories far better than those of their predecessors. They had thus created a scientific thinking system for the liberation movement of the proletariat and mankind as a whole. Lenin shed light on the law concerning the imbalance in the economic and political development in the capitalist world. He came to the conclusion that the socialist revolution could succeed first in one or several countries and he led the October Revolution to victory. Integrating the universal truth of the fundamental tenets of Marxism-Leninism with the specific conditions of the Chinese revolution, Comrade Mao Zedong originated the theory of the new-democratic revolution with which he guided the Chinese revolution toward victory and led the Chinese people onto the road to socialism. Comrade Deng Xiaoping reviewed the negative and positive experience in the development of socialism in China and abroad and formulated the theory of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, which has ushered China into a new period of vigorous development of the socialist cause.
The history of Marxism fully shows that the principle of emancipating the mind and seeking truth from facts leads to great social progress. As social practice continues to develop, we should keep renewing our ideas and make innovations courageously and geniusly in light of practical needs. We should take practice as the sole criterion for testing truth, subject ourselves to the guidance of the Party’s basic theory, proceed from reality in everything we do and free ourselves on our own from outdated notions, practices and systems, from the erroneous and dogmatic interpretations of Marxism and from the shackles of subjectivism and metaphysics. We should adopt a scientific approach and make bold explorations in order that we think and act more in line with the objective reality, China’s conditions in the primary stage of socialism, and the development of the times.
Our Party has a history of 80 years. It has had the great practice of creating and developing Mao Zedong Thought and Deng Xiaoping Theory. It has historical experience, both positive and negative and both Chinese and foreign, in developing socialism. We will be able to make fresh contribution to enriching and developing Marxism as long as we remain in the forefront of the times, base ourselves on the present practice, try to understand the characteristics of the times, study major issues of immediate importance in accordance with the basic theory of Marxism, deepen our understanding of the laws governing the rule of the country by the Communist Party and the development of socialism and human society, and draw upon all scientific and new experience, thoughts and achievements.
To meet the requirements of the “Three Represent’s,” we must uphold the Party’s nature of being the vanguard of the working class and make sure it remains advanced. At the same time, in light of economic development and social progress, we must constantly consolidate the class foundation of the Party, expand its popular support and increase its social influence.
The Chinese working class is a product of China’s social development, particularly the expansion of large-scale, socialized production since modern times. It has a strong sense of organization and discipline and is firm and wholehearted for revolution. The Communist Party of China has identified itself as a political party of the Chinese working class ever since its founding and has remained the vanguard of the working class, which has laid a solid class foundation for maintaining its advanced nature.
With the development of reform, opening up and modernization, the working class in China has expanded steadily. The qualities of the working class have improved markedly in terms of their political awareness, moral standards, scientific and technical and educational level. It has become more progressive. All this has made the Party’s class foundation more solid. With intellectuals being part of the working class, the scientific, technical and academic level of the working class has been raised considerably. Now we have adopted the basic economic system under which public ownership plays a dominant role in the national economy while other forms of ownership develop side by side. We are shaping a socialist market economy and introducing strategic readjustments to the economic structure. Consequently some workers have changed their jobs. But this has not changed the status of the Chinese working class. On the contrary, this will serve to improve the overall quality of the working class and give play to its advantages as a group in the long run. The Chinese working class has always represented the advanced productive forces in China. Our Party must remain the vanguard of the working class and unswervingly and wholeheartedly rely on the working class.
The main criterion to judge the nature of a political party is its theory and program. If they are Marxist and represent the correct orientation of social development and the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the people, the party is an advanced one and the vanguard of the working class. Our Party is a product of integration of Marxism-Leninism with the Chinese workers’ movement. The emergence of the working class is an essential condition for founding the Party. During the period of democratic revolution, given the social conditions then, most of our Party members came from peasants and other laborers, quite a few from intellectuals and some from other revolutionaries of non-laborers’ background. But the theory and program of our Party were Marxist and represented the correct orientation of China’s social development. Our Party attached great importance to building up the Party ideologically and persisted in educating and arming all Party members with Marxist theory. It required Party members to join the Party not just organizationally, but first of all ideologically. It gave them guidance as to how to achieve the Party’s program and tasks. All these enabled the Party to keep its nature of being the vanguard of the working class.
Since China adopted the policy of reform and opening up, the composition of China’s social strata has changed to some extent. There are, among others, entrepreneurs and technical personnel employed by scientific and technical enterprises of the non-public sector, managerial and technical staff employed by foreign-funded enterprises, the self-employed, private entrepreneurs, employees in intermediaries and free-lance professionals. Moreover, many people frequently move from one ownership, sector or place to another, changing their jobs or capacity from time to time. This trend of developments will continue. Under the guidance of the Party’s line, principles and policies, most of these people in the new social strata have contributed to the development of productive forces and other undertakings in a socialist society through honest labor and work or lawful business operation. They work together with workers, farmers, intellectuals, cadres and the officers and men of the PLA. They are also working for building socialism with Chinese characteristics.
To build socialism with Chinese characteristics is a great and arduous cause. It calls for the worthy people from all sectors who are loyal to the motherland and socialism to take action and lead other people in pushing forward this cause. The main criteria to admit a person into the Party are whether he or she works hard wholeheartedly for the implementation of the Party’s line and program and meets the requirements for the Party membership. The basic components and backbone of the Party are those from workers, farmers, intellectuals, servicemen and cadres. At the same time, it is also necessary to accept those outstanding elements from other sectors of the society who have subscribed to the Party’s program and Constitution, worked for the Party’s line and program wholeheartedly, and proved to meet the requirements for the Party membership through a long period of tests. We should try to enhance the ethical standards and political awareness of our Party members through Party education. This will greatly increase the influence and cohesiveness of the Party in the society at large.
The theory on labor and labor value in a capitalist society advanced by Marxist classical writers brings to light the operational features of the capitalist mode of production and its basic contradictions at that time. At present, we are putting in place a socialist market economy. But the conditions we are faced with are quite different from those the founders of Marxism were faced with and studied. In light of the new conditions, we should make a thorough study of the theory on labor and labor value in a socialist society with a view to achieving a better understanding of this theory. It is our fundamental objective of building socialism to ensure our people their prosperity and well-being. With economic development, our people will live a better life and their personal property will increase gradually. In view of this, it is not advisable to judge a person’s political integrity simply by whether one owns property and how much property he or she owns. But rather, we should judge him or her mainly by his or her political awareness, moral integrity and performance, by how he or she has acquired the property, and how it has be disposed of and used, and by his or her actual contribution to the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics.
To meet the requirements of the “Three Represent’s”, we must adhere to democratic centralism, establish and improve the scientific leadership system and working mechanism, give full scope to inner-Party democracy, resolutely safeguard the centralism and unity of the Party, and maintain and continue to enhance its vitality.
Democratic centralism is our Party’s fundamental systems of organization and leadership. Our basic requirement and objectives of upholding and improving democratic centralism are to create a political situation in which there are both centralism and democracy, both discipline and freedom, both unity of will and personal ease of mind and liveliness in the Party.
It is imperative to promote inner-Party democracy and give full play to the initiative and creativity of the Party members and Party organizations at all levels. This is an important guarantee for the success of the Party cause. We should take effective measures to ensure Party members their democratic rights, broaden channels for inner-Party democracy and increase their knowledge of and involvement in Party affairs. All major issues in relation to the Party work must be addressed through discussions among Party members and after hearing their views fully. Effective mechanisms should be set up to make sure that all ideas and suggestions of Party members at the grass-roots level or in Party organizations at a lower level can promptly reach those at a higher level. The Party organizations at a higher level should listen to and collect views from Party members and Party organizations at a lower level so as to ensure that their decisions be made through a more scientific and democratic process. In accordance with the principles of collective leadership, democratic centralism, case-specific consultations, and decision through meetings, we should improve the internal deliberation and decision-making mechanism of the Party committees, give play to the role of plenary sessions of Party committees, and improve the decision-making procedures of standing committees of Party committees. All the major policy decisions of a Party committee must be made through discussions by the committee and nobody should be allowed to have the final say alone. We should improve the system of division of work and individual responsibility under the collective leadership by Party committees for greater efficiency. Equal emphasis should be placed on collective leadership and individual responsibility. We should foster people’s democracy through the development of inner-Party democracy.
We should strengthen and improve the leadership system of the Party and come up with better leadership and governance modalities in accordance with the principles of stressing the overall interests while coordinating those of all quarters concerned. The purpose is to ensure the core leadership of Party committees while giving full scope to the functions of the people’s congresses, central and local governments, the CPPCC, non-governmental organizations and others. The Party committees should strengthen their leadership over the people’s congresses, governments, the CPPCC and non-governmental organizations through rational, standardized and institutionalized mechanisms. Meanwhile, Party organizations and Party members who assume a leadership role in these institutions and organizations must implement, without any hesitation, the line, principles and policies of the Party and the decisions of Party committees while performing their duties in accordance with law. Leading officials at all levels must firmly put into practice the guiding principles and arrangements of the CPC Central Committee.
All Party members should enhance their awareness of the principle of democratic centralism, implement the principle to the letter and increase their ability to do so. It is important to learn leadership skills, ways and means that are called for in fulfilling the new tasks in the new situation, and combine the adherence to the Party’s leadership with the promotion of people’s democracy, performance of duties strictly in keeping with law and respect for objective law. Institution of better systems is vital as it bears on the overall long-term interests and defies constant changes. It is essential to improve the systems underlying democratic centralism, and ameliorate the leadership systems and working mechanisms of the Party so as to provide institutional safeguards for the correct implementation of the principle of democratic centralism. We must resolutely resist the impact of Western political models such as the multi-party system or separation of powers among the executive, legislative and judicial branches. We should firmly avoid making arbitrary decisions and taking peremptory actions in violation of democratic centralism on the one hand, and weak and incompetent leadership on the other.
With progress in the reform, opening-up and development of a socialist market economy, the social fabrics, economic composition, forms of organization, means of employment, interests of different sectors, and modalities of distribution have increasingly diversified. We should be sober-minded about this and pay attention to the trend. Otherwise, our country would be deprived of cohesiveness. Thus it is of vital importance to upholding the centralized power of the Party and unity of the state and safeguarding the authority of the CPC Central Committee. The guiding principles, development goals, major policies, legal system and important work arrangements, among others, of the Party and the state must be consistent and centralized. No localities, departments and institutions should go their own way. The grass-roots organizations of the Party, which underpin the work of the Party and its effectiveness, should constantly work on their self-improvement in response to the new situation and new tasks.
To meet the requirements of the “Three Represent’s”, we should implement, in an all-round manner, the principle of fostering a contingent of more revolutionary, younger, better educated and professionally more competent cadres and that of giving equal importance to both professional competence and political integrity. We should deepen the reform of personnel system so as to produce a contingent of high-caliber officials who are capable of assuming important responsibilities and withstanding the test of trials and tribulations.
Cadres are decisive factors, once a political line is decided upon. It is all the more important to have, through training, leading officials who are more politically-minded and good at leading the Party and ruling the country and who pay attention to overall interests. A large number of high-caliber leading officials hold the key to the consolidation and development of China’s socialism and its continued prosperity amidst the fierce international competition.
We should adhere to the principle under which the Party should supervise its members, improve personnel management, step up the reform of personnel system and manage our human resources in a more scientific, democratic and systematic manner. We should make our human resources management more transparent and ensure people their access to information about recruitment and promotion, and their right to participate in and monitor the process. In this regard, the principle of recruitment and promotion through open and fair competition on the basis of merits should be upheld, and measures to this effect should be adopted so as to encourage officials to work harder and get them prepared for both promotion and demotion. We should improve the supervision of promotion and recruitment of officials and the system and methods for assessing their performance. Resolute measures should be taken to prevent and redress malpractice in the recruitment and promotion work.
The training of young cadres is a strategic task that will ensure the long-term stability of the Party and the state. In order to assume leadership responsibilities, young officials must increase their understanding of Marxism, enhance their political integrity, improving their capacity for serving the people, their judgment of the situation, their understanding of the overall interests, and their ability to handle complicated circumstances. Party committees at all levels should help and encourage young leaders to temper themselves in harsh conditions or in the forefront of important tasks, and make arrangements for this accordingly.
The advance of our times and development of our undertakings determine that the Party and the state need more and more talented people of various kinds. We must lose no time in training professionals of all kinds, providing them with incentives and giving full play to their capabilities. Further efforts should be made to create in the whole Party and society a favorable atmosphere where there is respect for knowledge and talent and outstanding people can easily come to the fore. Leading officials should have the insight to identify the talents, the resolve to use them, the passion to love them and the ways to get them together and should know how to judge and use people and pool the talents together. They should, with lofty ideals and spirit, guide and inspire various talented people to render meritorious service to the state and the people. At the same time, the leading officials should care for and trust them and do their best to create good working conditions for them. It is necessary to expedite the establishment of an income distribution mechanism which is designed to keep the talented and bring out the best in them so as to put in place a system which guarantees that their rewards are commensurate with their endeavors and contributions. We should, through our work on all fronts, create a climate in which people of talent will come forward in large numbers.
In response to the requirements of the “Three Represent’s”, we must adhere to the principle that the Party must handle Party affairs and the policy of being strict in Party discipline. Party organizations at all levels must be strict with the Party members in respect of requirement, education, administration and supervision and be firm in rooting out the negative phenomena and corruption existing within the Party.
That the Party must handle Party affairs and be strict in Party discipline is an important guarantee for the maintenance of the Party’s progressiveness and purity and for the consolidation of its status as the ruling party. State affairs cannot be well managed without good Party building. So we must be strict in Party discipline. We should have a deeper understanding of the loss of political power by some Communist Parties in the world that had long been ruling parties and learn a lesson from them. The longer the Party is in power, the more necessary it is for the Party to strengthen self-improvement, and the stricter it should be with its members and cadres.
Strictness in Party discipline must be implemented in Party building in ideological, political and organizational fields as well as work style and must be truly reflected in all the aspects of education, management and supervision of Party organizations at all levels, all the Party members and cadres. All the Party organizations and members should act in strict compliance with the Party Constitution and other regulations of the Party and observe Party discipline to the letter. Leading cadres at all levels should, while behaving with dignity and making self-examination, self-warning and self-encouragement, always stress study, political awareness and integrity. They should often use criticism and self-criticism as a weapon in waging active ideological struggles and adhere to truth while rectifying mistakes. Party organizations at all levels should strengthen their capability of dissolving their own contradictions, face squarely at and settle existing problems and never avoid or whitewash them.
The Party’s work style bears on the image of the Party, the trend of public feeling and the life of the Party. It is essential to strengthen in an all-round way the development of the Party’s ideological style, study style, work style, leadership style and the cadres’ life style. In light of the new realities, it is necessary to carry forward the Party’s fine style, namely, integration of theory with practice, close link with the people and criticism and self-criticism. In the meantime, it is necessary to foster a new style on the basis of summing up new and practical experiences. All practices that run counter to the requirement of the development of the Party’s cause or the interests of the people should be resolutely removed. At present, special attention should be paid to overcoming the state of lethargy and seeking no progress, doing away with the grave alienation from the people and standing firmly against the unhealthy tendency of formalism and bureaucracy. Cadres at all levels must stress practicability and real effects at all times and on all occasions, work with a creative spirit, think and worry about what the people think and worry about, and work faithfully for the good of the people.
All the comrades in the Party must fully recognize, from the perspective of life and death of the Party and the state, the major significance of our fight against corruption and advocacy for clean governance and see through the development of Party’s style, the building of a clean government and the battle against corruption. It is essential to have a profound understanding of the long-term, arduous and complex nature of the work against corruption. Not only is it necessary to be prepared for protracted battles, but also intensify our efforts to address the current issues. We should adhere to the policy of a comprehensive approach to seek both a temporary solution and a permanent cure and build a solid protective dam ideologically against corruption and erosion. At the same time, we should strive to remove the soil and conditions for the occurrence of corruption through creative institutional measures and work harder to prevent and get rid of corruption at its root. The power in our hands is given by the people. Cadres at all levels are public servants of the people and must be subjected to the supervision by the people and the law. We should, through increased supervision within the Party, by the law and by the people, establish and improve a restrictive mechanism and a supervisory mechanism on the exercise of power in accordance with the law. The key to it is the supervision over the leading cadres to ensure that they exercise their power appropriately. All the Party members, the leading cadres in particular, must always be clean, honest and just. They must be able to withstand the test of reform, opening up and being in power, as well as the test of power, money and badger games. They will by no means be allowed to abuse power for personal gains, take bribes or bend the law. Party organizations and leading cadres at all levels must take a clear stand to oppose corruption. All practices of corruption and corrupt elements shall be found out through investigation without tolerance or lenience. The Party does not allow any hideout for corrupt elements within the Party. We must win the people’s confidence with tangible achievements in the building of the Party’s style and of a clean government.
All in all, in view of the heavy historical responsibility upon our shoulder and given the impact of international and domestic complexities as well as the test of various risks, it is imperative to constantly strengthen and improve the Party building and temper all Party members into firm Communists. This will enable our Party to forever remain the vanguard of the Chinese working class and that of the Chinese people and Chinese nation at the same time, faithfully represent the development trend of China’s advanced productive forces, the orientation of China’s advanced culture as well as the fundamental interests of the overwhelming majority of the Chinese people, and serve as the leadership core for the Chinese socialist cause.
IV. Continue to strive for the fulfillment of the basic line and historic mission of the Party
China has entered a new development stage of building a well-to-do society in the whole country and accelerating the socialist modernization drive. All comrades in the Party must be mindful of danger and stay prepared for adversities in times of peace, guard against conceit and impetuosity, continue to push for overall progress in reform, opening-up and the modernization drive and make vigorous efforts to roughly achieve socialist modernization by the middle of this century.
The program of a political party is a banner. In every historical stage, be it one of revolution, reconstruction or reform, our Party has never failed to have both a basic program for a given stage, namely, the minimum program, and the maximum program of long-term objectives. We believe in the unity of the minimum and maximum programs.
We firmly believe in the basic Marxist tenet that human society will inevitably move towards communism. Communism can only be realized on the basis of a fully developed and highly advanced socialist society. In the communist society, there will be abundant material wealth, and people will have a very high realm of thought and be able to develop themselves freely and in an all-round way. It must be pointed out, though, that the realization of communism will be an extremely protracted historical process. In the past, our understanding of this issue was quite superficial and simplistic. As a result of so many years of practice, our understanding of the issue today is much more comprehensive and profound. We may make scientific predictions about the direction in which human society may evolve in the future. But as for how things will develop specifically in the future, the answer to this question should come from practice in the future. We must never deviate from the correct course of progress, but it is neither possible nor necessary to envisage or describe in great details the development course in the distant future. The past experience has fully proven that it will easily lead to unrealistic fantasy. This is something that everyone ought to know full well.
All comrades in the Party should set up a lofty communist ideal, fortify their conviction and spur themselves on by holding to high ideological and moral standards. More importantly, they should make unremitting efforts in a down-to-earth manner to realize the Party’s basic program for the current stage and put their heart into each single piece of work now. To care about the immediate interests only while forgetting the lofty ideal will result in the loss of direction of progress. But to talk big about the lofty ideal without doing any practical work will get one divorced from reality.
China is now in the primary stage of socialism and will remain so for a long time to come. This is the initial stage of the long historical process of building socialism with Chinese characteristics. Along with economic development and all-round social progress, the building of socialism in China will enter a higher stage of development when conditions are ripe. All comrades must unswervingly implement the Party’s basic line for the primary stage of socialism, consistently concentrate on economic development, stick to the Four Cardinal Principles (keeping to the socialist road and upholding the people’s democratic dictatorship, leadership by the Communist Party, and Marxism-Leninism and Mao Zedong Thought ---Tr.), press ahead with reform and opening-up, strive for the realization of the basic program of the Party for the present stage and constantly advance the cause of building socialism with Chinese characteristics into the future.
In keeping with the economic, political and cultural requirements of building socialism with Chinese characteristics, all comrades in the Party and all people in the country should strive to achieve the development goals set for the Tenth Five-Year Plan. We should focus on development through economic restructuring and by relying on reform, opening-up and scientific and technological progress with a view to improving people’s living standards and constantly pushing for economic growth and social progress. Efforts should be made to properly balance the relations among reform, development and stability, correctly understand and handle the contradictions among the people and always maintain social stability and unity.
All undertakings to build socialism with Chinese characteristics, and in fact, everything that we do should aim not just at meeting people’s immediate material and cultural needs, but also at improving the qualities of the people or an all-round development of the people. This is the essential requirement of Marxism regarding the building of a new socialist society. We will constantly advance the all-round development of human beings based on a higher level of the material and spiritual civilization of the socialist society.
Efforts must be made to enable all people across the country to lead a well-to-do life as soon as possible and to continue to uplift their living standards. The Party’s policy to get the population rich must be adhered to. On the basis of economic growth, efforts should be made to increase income for urban and rural residents, constantly improve their living conditions, including food, clothing, housing, transport and daily necessities, improve the social security system, and medical and health facilities, with a view to bettering their life. When some people and some regions get rich first, others will be brought along and through this process, common prosperity of the entire population will be gradually achieved.
It is essential to give full play to the initiative and great creativity of the general public and ensure that they properly manage their life according to law and realize their aspirations and interests. It is necessary to continue to press ahead with the political restructuring, develop socialist democracy, improve the socialist legal system and ensure the full exercise by the people of their rights to democratic election, decision-making, administration and supervision.
Efforts should be made to upgrade the ideological and ethical standards of the entire people, improve their cultural and scientific levels and bring about an all-round development of their ideology and cultural life. We should conduct effective political education, develop education, science and technology, enliven socialist culture and ensure each and every individual full access to education and cultural achievements so as to enrich their spiritual ethos and diversify their cultural life.
It is necessary to enhance balance and harmony between man and nature so that people can work and live in a sound and beautiful ecological environment. We will adhere to the strategy of sustainable development and correctly handle the relations between economic development on the one hand and population, resources and the environment on the other, improve the eco-system and beautify the living environment, and improve public and social welfare facilities. We will try to pioneer a path of civilized development featuring a thriving economy, an affluent life and a sound eco-system.
To advance an all-round development of man is the precondition for and the basis of boosting economic and cultural development and improving the material life of the people, and vice versa. The more comprehensively people develop, the more material and cultural wealth they will create for society and the better the people’s life will be. Conversely, the more adequate the material and cultural life is, the better man will achieve his all-round development. The development of social productive forces, the economy and culture is a historical process of gradual and endless progress. All-round human development, too, is a historical process of gradual and endless progress. The two processes should interact and help each other forward.
Given the new situation, we must continue, on the basis of economic development, to press ahead with the modernization of our national defense and the armed forces, and build up our defense capability with a view to safeguarding our state security and national unity. It is essential to adhere to the fundamental principle of the Party’s absolute leadership over the army. We should meet the general requirements of building the armed forces that are “qualified politically and competent militarily and has a fine style of work, strict discipline and adequate logistic support”, and follow the military strategy for the new era as our overriding guideline. We should stress the quality of army-building and strengthen our armed forces by relying on science and technology and run the army according to law in an effort to build the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) into a strong, modern and revolutionary regular army. We should strengthen the building of our national defense reserves, develop the science, technology and industry of national defense and improve the system of national defense mobilization. We should also continue to consolidate and reinforce the unity between the army and the government, and that between the army and the people.
Comrades and Friends,
Ever since its founding, the Chinese Communist Party has all along held high the great banner of patriotism and waged an epic struggle for the unity and rejuvenation of the country. Since New China came into being, the Chinese communists of several generations have all made unremitting efforts toward the complete reunification of our motherland. Under the principle of “peaceful reunification and one country, two systems”, we have successfully resolved the questions of Hong Kong and Macao, both left over from history, and are working hard to seek an early solution to the question of Taiwan and to accomplish the great cause of national reunification. The status of Taiwan as a part of China shall in no way be allowed to change. The Chinese communists are rock firm in their resolve to safeguard state sovereignty and territorial integrity. While we do have the greatest sincerity to work for a peaceful reunification, we cannot and will not undertake to renounce the use of force. We are fully capable of checking any attempt to split China by seeking Taiwan’s “independence”. It is the bounden duty of the Chinese communists to end the state of separation between Taiwan and China’s mainland and achieve the complete reunification of China. Here I appeal to all our compatriots on both sides of the Taiwan Straits and to those overseas: Let’s unite and fight against separatism and continue to bring forward the cross-Straits relations and the process of peaceful reunification of the motherland. The complete reunification of China represents the aspirations of the people and is a historical trend that no one and no force could stop.
Comrades and Friends,
The world needs peace. The people want cooperation. Nations aspire for development. Society seeks progress. This is the trend of our times. In the last century, mankind underwent the scourge of two world wars and endured the hardships of the Cold War and confrontation, thus paying a heavy price. The people of China and of all other countries hate to see any new hot war or cold war or turmoil break out in any part of the world, hate to see any country or group of countries pushing hegemonism and power politics and hate to see any further widening of the development gap between North and South or the gap between the rich and the poor. The people of China and the rest of the world all long for a lasting world peace and for a stable and peaceful life. They aspire for a new international political and economic order and for democracy in international relations. They yearn for common development and prosperity for all and are willing to work together for a better future.
Peace and development are the themes of our times. World multi-polarization and economic globalization are developing despite twists and turns. Science and technology are advancing rapidly. Competition in terms of overall national strength is becoming increasingly fierce. New and profound changes are taking place in the world alignment of forces and the distribution of interests. Up to now, neither of the two questions, i.e., peace and development, has been resolved. The world we live in is still far from tranquil. Peace and development complement each other. World peace is the precondition for enhanced common development of all countries whereas such common development is an important basis for the preservation of world peace. The questions of peace and development are in essence the question of North and South. If developed countries can effectively support and assist developing countries in their economic and cultural development under the principle of equality, justice, reciprocity and mutual benefit and help the latter shake off poverty as soon as possible, there will be an important foundation for the settlement of the issues of peace and development.
Along with all the peace- and freedom-loving people in the world, the Communist Party and people of China have always worked for the lofty cause of promoting world peace and development. In the world’s great struggle against Fascism, in the sacred cause of the Asian, African and Latin American people fighting for national independence and liberation, and in the tireless efforts to promote the establishment of a fair and rational new international order, we have always stood on the side of justice and worked in unity with the people of all countries and all the progressive forces in the world.
In the new century, the Communist Party and Government of China stand ready to join hands with all countries and peoples who love peace and crave for development and progress so as to secure an international environment of lasting peace in a common endeavor to push forward the wheel of history toward the magnificent goal.
The purposes of China’s foreign policy are to safeguard world peace and promote common development. We adhere to an independent foreign policy of peace. We have carried out friendly exchanges and mutually beneficial cooperation with all countries and treated one another as equals on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence in a ceaseless effort to advance the cause of human progress. The Chinese Communist Party will, under the principles of independence, total equality, mutual respect and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs, conduct extensive exchanges and strengthen cooperation with all political parties and organizations in the world and further promote friendship between the peoples and development of relations between states.
We have all along maintained that countries should abide by the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and the universally recognized basic norms governing international relations, the affairs of a country should be decided by the government and people of that country and that matters in the world should be handled by the governments and people of all countries through consultations on the basis of equality. We oppose hegemonism and power politics of all forms. The international community needs to set up a new security concept with mutual trust, mutual benefit, equality and collaboration at its core and work to create a peaceful international environment of long-term stability and security. Countries should step up their economic and technical exchanges and cooperation and gradually transform the inequitable and irrational international economic order so that all will win and coexist as a result of economic globalization.
Our world is rich and colorful. The diversity of civilizations is the basic feature of human society and also the driving force behind the progress of human civilization. Respect should be given to the history, culture, social system and model of development of each individual country. Diversity of the world is a reality that should be recognized. Different civilizations and social systems should enjoy long-term coexistence and draw upon and benefit from each other in the process of competition and comparison and achieve common development while seeking common ground and shelving differences. We will continue to work with the people of all countries for a world of lasting peace and universal prosperity.
Comrades and Friends!
Every struggle that the Chinese people fought during the one hundred years from the mid-19th to the mid-20th century was for the sake of achieving independence of our country and liberation of our nation and putting an end to the history of national humiliation once and for all. This great historic cause has already been accomplished. All endeavors by the Chinese people for the one hundred years from the mid-20th to the mid-21st century are for the purpose of making our motherland strong, the people prosperous and the nation immensely rejuvenated. Our Party has led the entire Chinese people in carrying forward this historic cause for fifty years and made tremendous progress, and it will successfully attain the objective through hard work in the coming fifty years.
The young people of all ethnic groups in China represent the future of our country and nation and the hope for prosperity and development of our cause. It calls for your efforts, young people, to accomplish the grand cause of socialist modernization and the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation. The Party and people have ardent expectations of you. It is hoped that you love your country and your people, stand high and aim far, broaden your vision and give full play to your intelligence and wisdom on the broad arena of reform, opening-up and the modernization drive. You will demonstrate the value of your life and work hard to score accomplishments, thus living up to the expectations of the people and the times.
All that we have achieved has gone down in the annals of history. There is still a long way to go. The realization of truth is a process of continued progress, so is the changing of the world. We shall work unremittingly in pursuit of truth and fight for truth. Under no circumstances should comrades of the Party stand still and refuse to move forward, nor should they fear hardship and difficulties. All comrades must closely unite with the people of all ethnic groups in China and strive to build our great motherland into a strong, prosperous, democratic and culturally advanced modern socialist country so as to make new and even greater contributions to humanity.
Long live our great motherland!
Long live the great Chinese people!
Long live the great Communist Party of China!