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Top 10 Sci-tech Advances of 2001 Unveiled

China and world top 10 sci-tech achievement news for the year 2001 were unveiled January 23 in Beijing. Sponsored by the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, 566 Chinese academicians took part in the selection.

China's top 10 sci-tech advances of 2001 are:

1. Unmanned spacecraft Shenzhou II successfully launched

China launched an unmanned spacecraft, "Shenzhou II", early January 10 morning from Jiuquan Satellite Launching Center of Gansu Province, and 10 minutes after blast-off, the spaceship entered its preset orbit.

The successful launch at Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center in northwestern Gansu Province was China's second in a series of flights expected to lead to a first manned space flight.

It marked a step forward in China's manned space program.

2. China finished its part of human genome sequence

Chinese scientists announced Sunday that they have completed a genetic map of the No.3 human chromosome, a part of the Human Genome Project, which was assigned to China.

The work, finished two years ahead of schedule, has passed a joint appraisal made by the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

3. China independently completed rice gene data bank

Researchers in eastern China have made a breakthrough in the development of a rice gene chip and registered 48 gene patents.

According to scientists with the Bio-technology Institute of Zhejiang University, they have completed the separation, sequencing and analysis of over 36,000 rice genes and released in a globally recognized gene bank 20,381 express sequence tags (EST) useful in the study of gene functions, about 19.5 percent of the bank's total.

Experts say this is China's first independently made rice gene data bank.

4. China built world largest plants species bank

5. China developed its high-property super-server Shuguang 3000

6. Chinese scientists successfully observed internal structure of molecule

7.China made important achievement in early life research

8. China made breakthrough in nucleon systemization

9. China conducted accurate land resource investigation

10. China set world record in cotton yield for three consecutive years

World Top 10 sci-tech advances of 2001 are:

1.US, Japanese, German, French, Chinese scientists finished human genome sequence

An international team of scientists announced in London yesterday the completion of the blueprint of human life - a draft of the human genome.

Francis Collins, chief scientist of the Human Genome Project, which was launched in 1990, said before the announcement that they have completed a "working draft" of the human genome, which contains the genetic sequence of an estimated 90 per cent of the sequence arranged in near perfect order on a genetic map.

2. Bell Labs scientists built world's smallest transistor

Nov. 8, 2001-- Scientists from Lucent Technologies' (NYSE:LU - news) Bell Labs, building upon their recent breakthrough in molecular-scale transistors, have now fabricated an individually addressable transistor whose channel consists of just one molecule, a feat never previously accomplished.

The channel - the space between its electrodes - is where the transistor's electronic switching and amplification take place.

3. Israeli scientists built a DNA computer

Following Mother Nature's lead, Israeli scientists have built a DNA computer so tiny that a trillion of them could fit in a test tube and perform a billion operations per second with 99.8 percent accuracy.

Instead of using figures and formulas to solve a problem, the microscopic computer's input, output and software are made up of DNA molecules -- which store and process encoded information in living organisms.

4. World first genetically modified primate born in America

Researchers have created the first genetically modified primate in the world, a baby rhesus monkey whose name - ANDi - stands for "inserted DNA" spelled backward.

Born in October, the male monkey carries a tiny extra bit of DNA in a gene introduced as a marker that can be seen under a microscope because it actually glows green, researchers at Oregon Health Sciences University said.

5. New HIV vaccine experiment on monkeys successfully carried out in US

In what is being called some of the best evidence to date that AIDS can be controlled by a vaccine, inoculated monkeys stayed healthy for months after infection with an HIV-like virus, researchers reported Thursday. The novel vaccine has generated so much enthusiasm that it is being fast-tracked toward human testing.

Scientists called the results, published in the journal Science, encouraging but cautioned that they did not know whether a similar vaccine would work in humans and that further study would take years.

6. Germany invented single-electron nanometer switch

7. American scientists found water evidence on Mars

At 8:03 p.m. ET on June 20, SPACE.com reported that NASA had found evidence of water on Mars. The tremendous discovery fuels hope for microbial life on the Red Planet. It also makes a human mission to Mars more practical.

8. American and Japanese scientists found evidence of conjugation-parity violation

9. A milestone is reported by a team from Britain and Japan in the effort to use lasers to harness fusion power

The dream of harnessing the energy source that powers the sun to provide unlimited supplies of cheap energy comes a step closer to reality today.

A milestone is reported by a team from Britain and Japan in the effort to use lasers to harness fusion power, the Holy Grail of energy research.

Nuclear fusion offers the potential of vast quantities of cheap power from fuels such as seawater, without creating significant waste. However, despite more than half a century of research, there have been many false dawns.

10. Mars Odyssey successfully launched by America

NASA's return to Mars began at 11:02 a.m. Eastern time April 7 morning as the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft roared into space onboard a Delta II launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla.

About 53 minutes later, at 11:55 a.m. Eastern time, flight controllers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory received the first signal from the spacecraft through the Deep Space Network station in Canberra, Australia indicating that all is well aboard the orbiter.

(People’s Daily January 25, 2002)

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