X. Arms Control and Disarmament
China attaches importance to and takes an active part in international efforts in the field of arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation. It adheres to the complete fulfillment of the UN's role in this area, and that of other related international organizations and multilateral mechanisms, and considers that existing multilateral arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation systems should be consolidated and strengthened, that the legitimate and reasonable security concerns of all countries should be respected and accommodated, and that global strategic balance and stability should be maintained.
China has always stood for the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons. China maintains that countries possessing the largest nuclear arsenals bear special and primary responsibility for nuclear disarmament. They should further drastically reduce their nuclear arsenals in a verifiable, irreversible and legally-binding manner, so as to create the necessary conditions for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons. When conditions are appropriate, other nuclear-weapon states should also join in multilateral negotiations on nuclear disarmament. To attain the ultimate goal of complete and thorough nuclear disarmament, the international community should develop, at an appropriate time, a viable, long-term plan with different phases, including the conclusion of a convention on the complete prohibition of nuclear weapons.
China holds that, before the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons, all nuclear-weapon states should abandon any nuclear deterrence policy based on first use of nuclear weapons, make an unequivocal commitment that under no circumstances will they use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones, and negotiate an international legal instrument in this regard. In the meantime, nuclear-weapon states should negotiate and conclude a treaty on no-first-use of nuclear weapons against each other.
China has played a constructive role in the review process of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT). Together with other signatories to the NPT, China is willing to sincerely implement the positive achievements of the Eighth NPT Review Conference in 2010. China supports the early entry into force of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the early commencement of negotiations on the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) at the Conference on Disarmament (CD) in Geneva.
As a permanent member of the UN Security Council and a nuclear-weapon state signatory of the NPT, China has never evaded its obligations in nuclear disarmament and pursues an open, transparent and responsible nuclear policy. It has adhered to the policy of no-first-use of nuclear weapons at any time and in any circumstances, and made the unequivocal commitment that under no circumstances will it use or threaten to use nuclear weapons against non-nuclear-weapon states or nuclear-weapon-free zones. China has never deployed nuclear weapons in foreign territory and has always exercised the utmost restraint in the development of nuclear weapons, and has never participated in any form of nuclear arms race, nor will it ever do so. It will limit its nuclear capabilities to the minimum level required for national security.
China has strictly abided by its commitment to a moratorium on nuclear testing and has actively participated in the work of the Preparatory Commission of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Organization, and is steadily preparing for the national implementation of the Treaty. China is responsible for setting up 12 international monitoring stations and laboratories. At present, six primary seismological monitoring stations, three radionuclide stations, the Beijing Radionuclide Laboratory and the China National Data Center have been set up, and one infrasound station is under construction.
China consistently supports the efforts of non-nuclear-weapon states in establishing nuclear-weapon-free zones, has already signed and ratified all the relevant protocols which have been opened for signature of any nuclear-weapon-free zone treaties, and has reached agreement with the ASEAN countries on relevant issues under the Protocol of the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone. China supports the Treaty on a Nuclear-Weapon-Free Zone in Central Asia and its protocols signed by Central Asian countries, and supports the establishment of a nuclear-weapon-free zone in the Middle East.
China maintains that the global missile defense program will be detrimental to international strategic balance and stability, will undermine international and regional security, and will have a negative impact on the process of nuclear disarmament. China holds that no state should deploy overseas missile defense systems that have strategic missile defense capabilities or potential, or engage in any such international collaboration.
China firmly opposes the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and their means of delivery, and consistently deals with non-proliferation issues in a highly responsible manner. China maintains that, in order to prevent proliferation at source, efforts should be made to foster a global and regional security environment featuring mutual trust and cooperation, and the root causes of WMD proliferation should be eliminated. It holds that non-proliferation issues should be resolved through political and diplomatic means. It holds that the authority, effectiveness and universality of the international non-proliferation regime should be upheld and enhanced. The international community should ensure fairness and prevent discrimination in international non-proliferation efforts, strike a balance between non-proliferation and the peaceful use of science and technology, and abandon double standards. China has joined all international treaties and international organizations in the field of non-proliferation, and supports the role played by the United Nations in this regard, and has conscientiously implemented any relevant resolutions of the UN Security Council.
China advocates resolving the nuclear issue in the Korean Peninsula peacefully through dialogues and consultations, endeavoring to balance common concerns through holding six-party talks in order to realize the denuclearization on the Korean Peninsula and maintain peace and stability of the Korean Peninsula and the Northeast Asia. China, always considering the whole situation in the long run, painstakingly urges related countries to have more contacts and dialogues in order to create conditions for resuming six-party talks as early as possible. China is for the peaceful resolution of the Iranian nuclear issue through dialogue and negotiation, and for maintaining the peace and stability of the Middle East. China has been dedicated to promoting dialogue and negotiation, and has actively engaged with relevant parties to promote non-proliferation. China has attended the meetings of foreign ministers and political directors of the P5+1, and has participated in the deliberations on the Iranian nuclear issue at the UN Security Council and at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in a constructive manner.
Since 2009, China has held arms control and non-proliferation consultations with a dozen countries, including the US, Russia, the UK, Germany, Brazil, Canada, Pakistan, the Republic of Korea, the EU, Australia and Israel, and continues to strengthen dialogue and exchanges with multinational export control mechanisms. It has conducted discussions with the Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR) and participated in its technical outreach meeting. China has cosponsored inter-sessional meetings on non-proliferation and disarmament with relevant countries within the framework of the ARF, and taken part in discussions on biological security and counter-biological terrorism.
China attaches great importance to non-proliferation export control, and has established a comprehensive legal system for export control of nuclear, biological, chemical, missile and related sensitive items and technologies, as well as all military products. It has adopted the relevant international universal export control measures, including the licensing system, end-user and end-use certificate, list control, and "catch-all" principle. In 2009, the Ministry of Commerce promulgated the Measures for Administration of Dual-use Items and Technologies Subject to Export General License to further strengthen the licensing system for export control.
China attaches great importance to the issue of nuclear security, opposes nuclear terrorism, adopts effective nuclear security measures and maintains a good record in this field. China observes in good faith its international obligations and takes an active part in international nuclear security cooperation. It agrees in principle to set up a nuclear security "Center of Excellence" in China in cooperation with relevant countries.
Prohibition of Biological and Chemical Weapons
China sincerely fulfills its obligations under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) by setting up implementation offices at both central and local levels, by submitting timely complete annual declarations, through declarations subsequent to newly discovered chemical weapons abandoned by Japan in China, and through submission of the annual national protection program. China has hosted more than 240 on-site inspections by the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). China cooperates closely with the OPCW. Jointly with the OPCW, China has hosted several training courses for OPCW inspectors, as well as international courses on protection and assistance. China has also provided assistance to those African states party to the Organization. With a view to facilitating Japan's role in fulfilling its obligation to destroy its chemical weapons abandoned in China, China has assisted Japan in carrying out 150 on-site investigation, excavation, recovery and identification missions, and has excavated almost 50,000 items of abandoned chemical weaponry. In October 2010, China began to destroy chemical weaponry abandoned by Japan in Nanjing. China calls on Japan to increase its input to this process and to accelerate the destruction of its chemical weapons abandoned on Chinese territory.
China supports multilateral efforts to strengthen the effectiveness of the Biological Weapons Convention (BWC) and is committed to the comprehensive and strict implementation of the Convention. China has already established a comprehensive legislation system for the implementation of the Convention and set up a national point of contact. China submits annual declarations of its confidence-building measures to the Implementation Support Unit of the Convention in a timely manner, attends Meetings of State Parties and Meetings of Experts and related seminars, strengthens bio-security and disease surveillance, and carries out international exchanges and cooperation.
Prevention of an Arms Race in Outer Space
The Chinese government has advocated from the outset the peaceful use of outer space, and opposes any weaponization of outer space and any arms race in outer space. China believes that the best way for the international community to prevent any weaponization of or arms race in outer space is to negotiate and conclude a relevant international legally-binding instrument.
In February 2008, China and Russia jointly submitted to the Conference on Disarmament (CD) a draft Treaty on the Prevention of the Placement of Weapons in Outer Space and the Threat or Use of Force against Outer Space Objects (PPWT). In August 2009, China and Russia jointly submitted their working paper responding to the questions and comments raised by the CD members on the draft treaty. China is looking forward to starting negotiations on the draft treaty at the earliest possible date, in order to conclude a new outer space treaty.
Conventional Arms Control
China has sincerely fulfilled its obligations under the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons (CCW) and its Protocols, submitted its annual reports on the implementation of the Amended Protocol on Landmines, and actively participated in the work of the Group of Governmental Experts (GGE) on Cluster Munitions. In April 2010, China ratified the Protocol on Explosive Remnants of War.
Since 2009, China has continued to participate actively in international humanitarian de-mining assistance. It has held de-mining training courses for Afghanistan, Iraq and Sudan. China has also donated de-mining equipment to Egypt, Afghanistan, Iraq, Sudan and Sri Lanka, and provided Peru and Ethiopia with mine victim assistance.
China has actively participated in the international effort to combat the illicit trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons (SALW). It has conscientiously implemented the UN Program of Action (PoA) on SALW and the International Instrument on Identifying and Tracing Illicit SALW. It has participated in the Open-Ended Working Group (OEWG) and the first session of the Preparatory Commission of an Arms Trade Treaty. In 2010, China attended the Fourth Biannual Meeting on SALW and submitted its national report.
Transparency in Military Expenditure and Registration of Transfer of Conventional Arms
China attaches great importance to military transparency, and makes efforts to promote mutual trust with other countries in the military sphere. Since 2007, China has begun to report to the UN Standardized Instrument for Reporting Military Expenditures. China gives weight to the UN Register of Conventional Arms and continues to submit data to the Register on conventional arms transfer in the seven categories covered by the Register.