National People's Congress

The National People's Congress (NPC) of the People's Republic of China is the highest organ of state power. The Standing Committee of the NPC is the permanent organ of the NPC. The term of office of the NPC and its Standing Committee is five years. The NPC and its Standing Committee are empowered with the rights of legislation, decision, supervision, election and removal.



The President of the People's Republic of China is the Head of State, as well as the supreme representative of China both internally and externally. The State presidency is an independent State apparatus and a component part of China's State organization. China's system of the head of state is a system of collective leadership. The president is subordinate to the NPC and directly receives instructions from the supreme organ of State power.

To date, six men have held the office of the president of the People's Republic of China, Mao Zedong, Liu Shaoqi, Li Xiannian, Yang Shangkun, Jiang Zemin, and the current president, Hu Jintao.


State Council

The State Council of the People's Republic of China, namely the Central People's Government, is the highest executive organ of State power, as well as the highest organ of State administration. The State Council is composed of a premier, vice-premiers, State councillors, ministers in charge of ministries and commissions, the auditor-general and the secretary-general. The premier of the State Council is nominated by the president, reviewed by the NPC, and appointed and removed by the president. Other members of the State Council are nominated by the premier, reviewed by the NPC or its Standing Committee, and appointed and removed by the president. In the State Council, a single term of each office is five years, and incumbents cannot be reappointed after two successive terms.

The State Council follows the system of premier responsibility in work while various ministries and commissions under the State Council follow the system of ministerial responsibility. In dealing with foreign affairs, State councillors can conduct important activities on behalf the premier after being entrusted by the premier of the State Council. The auditor-general is the head of the State Auditing Administration, in charge of auditing and supervising State finances . The secretary-general, under the premier, is responsible for the day-to-day work of the State Council and is in charge of the general office of the State Council.

The State Council is responsible for carrying out the principles and policies of the Communist Party of China as well as the regulations and laws adopted by the NPC, and dealing with such affairs as China's internal politics, diplomacy, national defense, finance, economy, culture and education.

Under the current Constitution, the State Council exercises the power of administrative legislation, the power to submit proposals, the power of administrative leadership, the power of economic management, the power of diplomatic administration, the power of social administration, and other powers granted by the NPC and its Standing Committee.


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