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· The 7th-12th Centuries
· Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)
· Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
· Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
· Republic of China (1912-1949)
· People's Republic of China (Founded in 1949)
Experts in genetics have come to the conclusion through studying many genetic marks such as blood type and protein that the Han and the Tibetan race shared the same ancestors; archaeologists say the pre-historic boom in Tibet was strongly associated with Chinese culture; and historians who have studied Tibetan and Chinese historical records have found that the Tibet Plateau and the hinterland of China maintained long economic, cultural and political ties throughout history.
The 7th-12th Centuries
Early in the 7th century, the powerful Tang Dynasty (618-907) was founded in the Central Plains, ending the disintegration and chaotic situation that had prevailed in the region for more than 300 years. In the meantime, the Spurgyal tribe rose in the Yarlung area in today's Shannan. The tribe conquered others in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, and formed the Tubo Kingdom in the 7th century.
Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368)
In 1271, the Mongolian Kublai Khan took Yuan as the name of their dynasty. U-Tsang (present-day Lhasa, Xigaze and Ngari ) thus became a part of the Yuan, and Tibet was finally included as a directly governed administrative unit.
Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
Soon after the Ming Dynasty replaced the Yuan Dynasty in 1368, the Central Government sent officials to the Tibetan-inhabited areas, calling for various tribal leaders to swear allegiance to the new ruler. Old official seals were reclaimed and replaced by new ones in a peaceful transition. The Ming continued sovereignty over Tibet.
Qing Dynasty (1644-1911)
The Qing Dynasty established the capital in Beijing in 1644, and united China. It exercised the sovereignty over Tibet according to the practice in history. The Qing rulers decreed that those in Tibet granted official titles by the Ming court might retain their official position so long as they turned over their official seals and applied for new ones from the Qing court. In 1652, the 5th Dalai Lama was summoned to Beijing for an audience with Emperor Shunzhi; he received his official title from the Qing court the following year. The honorific title of the Dalai Lama was finally officially determined and the following generations of the Dalai Lama all had to seek Central Government certificates of appointment and seal of authority for their rule in Tibet.
Republic of China (1912-1949)
The Revolution of 1911 brought down the Qing Dynasty and led to the founding of the Republic of China in 1912. The Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China, enacted under the auspices of Dr. Sun Yat-sen, Interim President, stipulated that Tibet was one of the 22 provinces of the Republic of China. Stipulations concerning Tibet in the Constitution of the Republic of China promulgated later all stressed that Tibet is an inseparable part of Chinese territory.
People's Republic of China (Founded in 1949)
When the People's Republic of China was founded on October 1, 1949, the 10th Panchen Erdeni, one of the two major Living Buddhas in Tibet, announced his support for the Central Government and his wish to see early liberation of Tibet.
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