White Paper: Development and Progress of Tibet

Comment(s)打印 E-mail China.org.cn  2013-10-22
一、西藏发展进步是历史的必然 I. The Development and Progress in Tibet Is the Inevitable Result of History
当代西藏的发展进步,内生于自身特殊的社会历史逻辑,植根于中国国家的发展进步迈向,并与世界现代文明发展相适应。1959年之前,西藏的社会形态是典型的政教合一的封建农奴制度,西藏的发展进步正是在封建农奴制的废墟上发端的。 The development and progress in modern Tibet results from the innate logic of its social and historical environment, and has its roots in China's progress in a larger context. Its development is in line with the advance of world's modern civilization. Prior to 1959, Tibet was a typical society of feudal serfdom under a theocracy, characterized by a combination of political and religious powers. The development and progress in Tibet began right from the ruins of feudal serfdom.
1959年之前的西藏社会 Tibetan society prior to 1959
对1959年之前的西藏社会状况,人们曾有过许多描述,这里仅做部分节选,从中可略窥旧西藏黑暗、落后之一斑。 There is plenty of literature describing the situation of Tibetan society before 1959. From the following excerpts one can have a glimpse at the darkness and backwardness of old Tibet.
原英国《每日邮报》驻印度记者埃德蒙·坎德勒在1905年出版的《拉萨真面目》中写道: In his 1905 book The Unveiling of Lhasa, former British journalist in India Edmund Candler, who worked for the Daily Mail, recorded the details of the old Tibetan society:
旧西藏“具有中世纪的性质”,“实行的是封建制度”。“喇嘛是太上皇,农奴是他们的奴隶”。“人民还停留在中世纪的年代,不仅仅是他们的政体、宗教方面,在他们的严厉惩罚、巫术、灵童转世以及要经受烈火与沸油的折磨方面是如此,而且在他们日常生活的所有方面也都不例外”。“藏人如牛似马地劳累,而赢来的却是为数甚微的生活必需品”。拉萨“这座城市脏得无法形容,没有下水道,路面也没有铺砌石块。没有一栋房子看上去清洁干净或经常有人打扫。下雨之后,街道就成了一洼洼的死水塘,猪狗则跑到这些地方来寻找废物渣滓”。 Old Tibet "is governed on the feudal system. The monks are the overlords, the peasantry their serfs." "...at present, the people are medieval, not only in their system of government and their religion, their inquisition, their witchcraft, their incarnations, their ordeals by fire and boiling oil, but in every aspect of their daily life." "... he toils a lifetime to win by his own labour and in scanty measure the necessaries ..." Lhasa was "squalid and filthy beyond description, undrained and unpaved. Not a single house looked clean or cared for. The streets after rain are nothing but pools of stagnant water frequented by pigs and dogs searching for refuse."
英国藏学家查尔斯·贝尔在20世纪40年代撰写的《十三世达赖喇嘛传》中写道: In Portrait of A Dalai Lama: The Life and Times of the Great Thirteenth, a 1940s work by Charles Bell, the British Tibetologist made observations of the harsh punishments in Tibet:
“西藏的刑法是严厉的。除了罚款和监禁外,鞭笞也是常事。在审判过程中,受到鞭打的不仅是被判有罪的人,而且还有被告甚至见证人。对严重违法者,既使用颈枷也使用手铐。颈枷是戴在脖子上的一块沉重的方木块。对杀人犯和惯偷惯盗,则使用铁质脚镣。对很严重的罪或屡次犯罪,诸如谋杀、暴力抢劫、惯偷或严重的伪造罪等,则要剁手(齐手腕),割鼻,甚至挖眼睛。而挖眼睛又多半用于某些政治上的滔天大罪。往昔那些犯有谋杀罪的人被装进皮口袋,缝起来,给扔进河里”。 "At the same time the Tibetan criminal code is drastic. In addition to fines and imprisonment, floggings are frequent, not only of people after they have been convicted of an offence, but also of accused persons, and indeed witnesses, during the course of the trial. For serious offences, use is made of the pillory as well as of the cangue, which latter is a heavy square wooden board round the neck. Iron fetters are fastened on the legs of murderers and inveterate burglars. For every serious or repeated offences, such as murder, violent robbery, repeated thefts, or serious forgery, the hand may be cut off at the wrist, the nose sliced off, or even the eyes gouged out, the last more likely for some heinous political crime. In former days those convicted of murder were put into a leather sack, which was sewn up and thrown into a river."
加拿大藏学家谭·戈伦夫在1987年出版的《现代西藏的诞生》中写道: The Canadian Tibetologist A. Tom Grunfeld published The Making of Modern Tibet in 1987. In it he wrote:
“过去统治西藏的是一种异乎寻常的封建的神权政治。……封建庄园主则垄断了处理所有地方事务的权力”。“绝大多数西藏人都是农奴”。“农奴被‘拴在’他们主人的手中。……他们毫无权利,即使要走进寺院,要结婚,也要征得主人的同意。如果分属于不同领主的两个农奴结了婚,所生男孩要归父亲的领主;如果是女孩,要归母亲的领主。要想离开庄园,哪怕是一小会儿,也要得到领主许可才行。如果想出门远行,朝拜寺庙或想做一点小买卖,都需要得到领主的同意”。“在西藏历史上,变换阶级成分的可能性很小。对大多数农奴来说,他们不得不接受出生时的农奴地位”。“没有证据证明西藏是一个乌托邦理想的世外桃源”。 "Tibetans were ruled by an unusual form of feudal theocracy.... The heads of the feudal estates maintained a monopoly of power over all local matters. Serfs were 'tied' to their masters.... So powerless were they that they required permission to enter a monastery and even to marry. If two serfs of different lords married, the male offspring reverted to the father's lord, while the female offspring went to the mother's. Permission to leave the estate - even for the briefest period - for such matters as family visits, pilgrimages or for some sideline trading required the consent of the lord. Historically there was very little class mobility in Tibet, and for the most part serfs were forced to accept the position they found themselves in upon birth. There is no evidence to support the images of a utopian Shangri-la."
曾在1949年之前担任过当时中国政府蒙藏委员会驻藏办事处官员的沈宗濂和柳陞祺在1953年出版的《西藏与西藏人》中写道: Two Chinese officials, Shen Zonglian and Liu Shengqi, who worked at the Chinese government's Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs Commission's Tibet office before 1949, wrote in their 1953 book Tibet and Tibetans:
“操纵拉萨政权的人物只来自不足一百家贵族中的上层和同等规模的僧侣集团。在他们看来,广大西藏人民不过是‘砍柴挑水的苦力’。这些特权人物生活在一种封闭状态,隔绝于世界潮流之外,忽视西藏社会蕴藏着的巨大力量,仍流连在一个僧侣、封建的独裁统治的残阳夕照之下,他们恰恰是因为西藏百姓的无知和对政治的冷漠才得以存在的。但历史必将加速前进,这个特权阶级必然在快速变革的世界中土崩瓦解”。 "The men who have been running the Lhasa government are drawn from the top class of fewer than a hundred still flourishing noble families and an ecclesiastical hierarchy of equal size. To them the Tibetan masses are the 'hewers of wood and drawers of water.' Cut off completely from world trends and from all the dormant social forces in Tibet, and basking in the waning sunshine of a theocratic-feudalistic autocracy, this privileged class can exist only on the ignorance and political lethargy of the Tibetans. Their privileged status is bound to collapse in this fast-changing world, and the process is only going to be accelerated."
几百年来,由于保守落后的农奴制,加之封闭的地理环境,西藏社会发展处于凝滞状态。至20世纪中叶,在人类向现代文明大步前进之际,西藏依然远远隔绝于世界潮流之外。 For centuries Tibetan society was mired in stagnation due to its backward serfdom and the isolated geographic location of Tibet. By the middle of the 20th century, when humanity was leaping toward modern civilization, Tibet still lagged far behind the rest of the world.
西藏发展进步的历程 Milestones of Tibet's development and progress
1949年中华人民共和国的成立,为国家的发展进步开辟了前所未有的空间。1951年,中央人民政府与原西藏地方政府签订《关于和平解放西藏办法的协议》,西藏实现和平解放,从此迈上与全国人民同发展共进步的历史轨道。 The founding of the People's Republic of China in 1949 opened up new prospects for the nation's development and progress on an unprecedented level. In 1951, the Central People's Government and the local Tibetan government signed the Agreement on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet, signifying the beginning of Tibet's development and progress together with the people of the whole nation.
1959年是西藏历史发展的分水岭。这一年,西藏地方反动上层发动的旨在维护封建农奴制的武装叛乱失败,中央政府发布命令解散西藏地方政府,西藏各族人民发起民主改革运动,一举推翻延续几百年的政教合一的封建农奴制度,开启了西藏历史上最为广泛、最为深刻、最具进步意义的社会变革。民主改革,百万农奴翻身解放,在西藏历史上首次实现人人平等、自由的基本人权,为日后的发展进步奠定了经济、政治和社会基础。 The year 1959 marked a turning point in Tibet's history. In that year the reactionary upper ruling strata of Tibet failed in an armed rebellion to perpetuate feudal serfdom, and the Central Government publicly announced the dismissal of the Tibetan local government. Meanwhile the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet launched a sweeping democratic reform to overthrow Tibet's feudal serfdom system under theocracy that had been in place for hundreds of years, ushering in a social reform that was considered the most extensive, profound and progressive in Tibetan history. The democratic reform liberated about a million serfs and slaves, and brought the basic human rights of equity and freedom to the Tibetan people for the first time in history. It laid the necessary economic, political and social foundation for the region's future development and progress.
1965年,西藏自治区成立,人民代表大会制度、民族区域自治制度等在西藏最终确立,西藏社会制度实现了从政教合一的封建农奴制度向人民当家作主的社会主义制度的跨越。伴随新型政治制度的建立和民主政治观念的传播,西藏百万农奴和旧时封建贵族等都成为享有平等权利的现代公民,行使平等参与国家事务管理和自主管理本民族本地区事务的政治权利,极大调动了人民创造美好生活的积极性和创造性。 In 1965, the Tibet Autonomous Region was founded, and the systems of the people's congress and regional ethnic autonomy were established. These events marked the leap forward for Tibetan society from a feudal serfdom under theocracy to socialism, with the people becoming their own masters. With the establishment of the new political system and the dissemination of ideas on democratic politics, the former serfs and slaves as well as the feudal aristocrats all became modern citizens who enjoy equal rights and exercise their political rights to equally participate in the management of state affairs and the affairs of their local ethnic groups autonomously. In this way, the Tibetan people were greatly motivated to use their enthusiasm and creativity to build a better future.
1978年以后,西藏和全国一道进入改革开放和现代化建设新时期,经济社会发展呈现新局面。中央政府提出加快西藏发展、在中国四个现代化建设中走进前列的目标,并根据西藏实际,制定了新时期西藏工作的指导思想和特殊优惠政策,大力支援西藏建设,有力推进了西藏的发展进步。 At the end of 1978, Tibet initiated the reform and opening-up drive toward modernization along with the rest of the country, ushering in a new stage of economic and social development. The Central Government set lofty goals for Tibet, striving to quicken its development and advancing it to the front row of the "four modernizations." In light of the local conditions, the government decided on guiding principles for the work in Tibet in the new era and issued favorable policies for Tibet's development. These moves vigorously contributed to the development and progress in Tibet.
进入21世纪,西藏的发展进步驶入历史快车道。2010年1月,中央召开第五次西藏工作座谈会,会议提出西藏下一步发展的目标,即到2015年,保持经济跨越式发展势头,农牧民人均纯收入与全国平均水平的差距显著缩小,基本公共服务能力显著提高,生态环境进一步改善,基础设施建设取得重大进展,各民族团结和谐,社会持续稳定,全面建设小康社会的基础更加扎实;到2020年,农牧民人均纯收入接近全国平均水平,人民生活水平全面提升,基本公共服务能力接近全国平均水平,基础设施条件全面改善,生态安全屏障建设取得明显成效,自我发展能力明显增强,社会更加和谐稳定,确保实现全面建设小康社会的奋斗目标。西藏迎来更美好的发展前景。 In the 21st century, Tibet has entered the fast lane of development. At the Fifth Symposium on Work in Tibet held in January 2010, the Central Authorities set the goals for Tibet's development in the next stage. The objectives for 2015 are to maintain the pace of leapfrog economic development, significantly narrow the gap between the per capita net income of farmers and herdsmen in Tibet and the national average, significantly increase Tibet's ability to provide public services, further improve the ecosystem, greatly develop Tibet's infrastructure, achieve unity and harmony among all ethnic groups, maintain social stability, and make a more solid foundation for building a moderately prosperous society in all respects. The objectives set for 2020 are to raise the per capita net income of farmers and herdsmen in Tibet so that it will be close to the national average, comprehensively raise the living standards of the people, improve its basic public services to approach the national average level, comprehensively improve infrastructure conditions, achieve significant results in creating an ecological security screen, greatly increase Tibet's capabilities for self-development, make Tibetan society more harmonious and stable, and ensure that a moderately prosperous society in all respects is established. With these goals achieved, better prospects for development will emerge in Tibet.
西藏发展进步是人类正义的胜利 Development and progress in Tibet is the victory of human justice
——西藏的发展进步符合人类社会的发展规律。由传统的农牧业经济到现代市场经济,由政教合一到政教分离,由专制到民主,由迷信到科学,由封闭到开放,是人类社会普遍的发展规律。西藏60多年的发展正是遵循了这个规律和总趋势。目前,尽管西藏的总体发展水平与全国其他省区市还有一定差距,但已经拉近了距离,大体上实现了同步发展。从人类大历史的角度观察,西藏在短短几十年时间里由封建农奴制社会一跃跨入现代文明社会,创造了一个地区现代化发展的典范。 - The development and progress of Tibet is in accordance with the rules for the development of human society. From traditional agriculture and animal husbandry to a modern market economy, from the integration of political and religious powers to their separation, from autocracy to democracy, superstition to science, and isolation to openness - these are the generic laws for the development of human society. Over the past 60 years of its development, Tibet has unfailingly followed these rules and the general trend. Today, despite the existing gaps in the level of development between Tibet and other provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities in China, Tibet has narrowed the distance and basically realized synchronized growth with the rest of the country. Observed from the macro perspective of human history, Tibet has leapt from a feudal serfdom society into one with a modern civilization within a matter of only a few decades, creating an outstanding example of regional modernization.
——西藏的发展进步是中国发展进步的必然结果。西藏的命运始终与祖国的命运紧密相连。近代以后,中国社会面临整体性的现代化转型,西藏作为中国不可分割的一部分,同样遵循中国社会变革的大逻辑。在西藏和平解放过程中,中国共产党领导人毛泽东即提出把旧西藏“改造为人民民主的西藏”的重大命题。60多年来,西藏发生的前所未有的深刻变化,正是在全国政治制度、经济制度、社会制度、文化制度等建立和发展的大背景下实现的。 - The development and progress of Tibet is inevitably connected with the overall development and progress of China. The fate of Tibet has always been closely linked to the fate of China. Since the advent of modern times, Chinese society has been challenged by the daunting task of comprehensive transition to modernization. Tibet, as an inalienable part of China, also follows the general logic of social reform in the country. During the process of peaceful liberation of Tibet, Mao Zedong, leader of the Communist Party of China, set the course for transforming old Tibet into a "people's democratic Tibet." The profound and unprecedented changes in Tibet over the past 60 years have been consequently realized through the establishment and progress of the political, economic, social and cultural systems of the nation as a whole.
——西藏的发展进步符合西藏各族人民的根本利益。西藏的发展进步是西藏人民的事业。60多年来,西藏的发展进步始终以人民根本利益为依归,表现为社会的发展进步与个人的发展完善的内在统一,通过推动社会发展进步不断创造更加丰富的社会财富,努力满足人民日益增长的物质和精神文化需要。西藏的发展进步实质是人的发展和人民主体性的实现,是尊重和保障人权的一次伟大实践。西藏的发展表现为人民不断获得自由和解放的过程,表现为从以神为本到以人为本的转变,是人民摆脱宗教神权奴役、追求做人尊严和价值的胜利。西藏人民是西藏发展进步的最大受益者。 - The development and progress of Tibet serves the fundamental interests of the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet. The development and progress of Tibet is the cause of the Tibetan people. In the past six decades, the development and progress of Tibet has always centered around the people's fundamental interests. In Tibet the self-improvement of individuals is consistent with the progress of society, with which more social wealth is created and thus meets the ever-growing material and cultural needs of the people. Essentially, the development and progress of Tibet reflects man's development and the realization of the people's principal position. It is a great practice for respecting and guaranteeing human rights. The development of Tibet has been a process in which people are gaining more and more freedom on the road to liberation, as well as the transformation from "deity first" to "people first." It marks the victory of the Tibetan people over the shackles of theocracy, and honors their pursuit of dignity and personal value. It is the Tibetan people who have benefited most from Tibet's development and progress.
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