White Paper: Development and Progress of Tibet

Comment(s)打印 E-mail China.org.cn  2013-10-22
三、政治进步与人民当家作主 III. Political Progress -- the People Are the Masters of Their Own Fate
经过民主改革和实行民族区域自治,西藏彻底摆脱了政教合一的封建农奴制度,建立起人民代表大会制度和民族区域自治制度,西藏各族人民真正成为国家、社会和自己命运的主人。随着中国社会主义民主政治的发展和完善,西藏的民主制度不断健全,民主形式日益丰富,有序政治参与渠道不断扩大。 Democratic reform and regional ethnic autonomy lifted Tibet out of the old state of feudal serfdom under theocracy and put in place the systems of people's congress and regional ethnic autonomy, under which people of all ethnic groups in Tibet have become the true masters of the country, society and their own fate. With the development and improvement of socialist democracy around the country, Tibet has seen its democratic system growing sounder, forms of democracy becoming more diversified, and channels for orderly political participation being expanded.
确立了人民代表大会制度 Establishing the system of people's congresses
人民代表大会制度是中国人民当家作主的根本政治制度。在中国,人民通过全国人民代表大会和地方各级人民代表大会行使国家权力。1965年9月,西藏自治区第一届人民代表大会第一次会议在拉萨召开,人民代表大会制度从此在西藏正式确立。在西藏,自治区行政机关、审判机关、检察机关都由自治区人民代表大会产生,对它负责,受它监督。自治区重大事项由区人民代表大会决定。自治区行政机关负责执行区人民代表大会通过的法规、条例、决议、决定。通过各级人大代表,西藏各族人民行使管理国家事务和地区事务的权利。在今天的西藏,凡年满18周岁的公民,不分性别、职业、家庭出身、民族、宗教信仰、受教育程度、财产状况和居住期限,都依法享有选举权和被选举权。西藏各族人民直接选举县(区)、乡(镇)人民代表大会的代表,这些代表又选举出自治区人民代表大会和出席全国人大会议的代表。西藏的门巴、珞巴等人口较少民族在全国人大及西藏各级人大中均有自己的代表。在自治区、地(市)、县(区)、乡(镇)四级人大换届选举中,参选率不断提高。在2012年四级人大换届选举中,参选率达94%以上。 The system of people's congress is a fundamental political system of China that ensures the people's right to be the masters of the country. Under this system the Chinese people exercise state power through the National People's Congress (NPC) and local people's congresses at different levels. In September 1965 the First Session of the First People's Congress of the Tibet Autonomous Region was held in Lhasa, marking the formal establishment of this system in Tibet. Tibet's administrative, judicial and procuratorial organs are all created by the regional people's congress to which they are responsible and by which they are supervised. Major regional affairs are decided by the regional people's congress. Tibet's administrative organs carry out the laws, regulations, rules, resolutions and decisions adopted by the regional people's congress. Through deputies to the people's congress at different levels, people in Tibet exercise their right to manage state and regional affairs. All Chinese citizens living in Tibet who are 18 years old or above, regardless of gender, occupation, family background, ethnicity, religious belief, educational background, financial conditions or length of residence in this region, enjoy the right to vote and the right to be elected. People of all ethnic groups in Tibet directly elect deputies to the people's congresses at the county (district) and township (town) levels, and these deputies then elect deputies to the regional people's congress and to the NPC. The Moinba and Lhoba ethnic groups, despite their small populations, both have their representatives at the NPC and local people's congresses at all levels in Tibet. During elections at the regional, prefecture (city), county (district) and village (town) levels, the voter turnout rate has grown steadily over the years. In the 2012 elections at these four levels the voter turnout rate exceeded 94 percent.
藏族和其他少数民族的人大代表始终在全区各级人大代表中占有绝对多数。2012年经过直接和间接选举产生的34244名四级人大代表中,藏族和其他少数民族代表31901名,占93%以上,门巴族、珞巴族、纳西族、回族、壮族等均有自己的代表。目前,在全国人大代表中,西藏自治区有20名代表,其中12名为藏族公民,门巴族、珞巴族公民各1名。自治区十届人大常委会组成人员44名,其中藏族和其他少数民族25名,常委会主任、副主任14名,其中藏族和其他少数民族8名。妇女的社会地位明显提高。西藏自治区人民代表大会中的妇女代表占代表总数的25.4%,各级政府公务员中妇女占34.49%。 Deputies of Tibetan and other ethnic minorities make up the overwhelming majority in the local people's congresses at all levels. In 2012, among the 34,244 deputies elected directly and indirectly at these four levels, 31,901 were from the Tibetan, Moinba, Lhoba, Naxi, Hui, Zhuang and other ethnic minorities, accounting for more than 93 percent. Among the present NPC deputies, 20 are from the Tibet Autonomous Region, of whom 12 are from the Tibetan ethnic group, one each from the Moinba and Lhoba ethnic groups. Among the 44 members of the standing committee of the tenth regional people's congress, 25 are from the Tibetan and other ethnic minorities; among the 14 chairpersons and vice-chairpersons of the standing committee, eight are from the Tibetan and other ethnic minorities. Women have also seen their social status raised markedly. Female deputies make up 25.4 percent of the total to the Tibet regional people's congress, while women make up 34.49 percent of all civil servants in governments at all levels.
建立了政治协商制度 Establishing the political consultation system
多党合作和政治协商制度是中国的一项基本政治制度。社会主义协商民主是中国人民民主的重要形式。1959年12月20日,中国人民政治协商会议第一届西藏委员会第一次会议在拉萨召开,宣告政协西藏委员会成立。从此,中国共产党领导的多党合作和政治协商制度在西藏确立,为西藏各阶层、各界人士都能在政治生活中充分表达意见和发挥作用提供了保障。西藏自治区党委和政府通过人民政协就经济社会发展中的重大问题和涉及群众切身利益的实际问题广泛协商,广集民智,把政治协商纳入决策程序。西藏自治区政协广泛吸收西藏各界、各族人士参加,注重和体现委员人选的广泛性和代表性。各级政协委员广泛团结各人民团体和各族各界人士,认真履行政治协商、民主监督、参政议政职能,深入调查研究、建言献策,是推进西藏建设的重要力量,为促进西藏经济发展和社会进步作出了重大贡献。目前,西藏共有全国政协委员29名,其中藏族和其他少数民族26名。2008年至2012年,中国人民政治协商会议第十届西藏自治区委员会共收到提案1507件,并已全部办复。 The system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation is a basic political system of China, and socialist consultative democracy is an important form of people's democracy in China. On December 20, 1959 the First Session of the First Tibet Autonomous Regional Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) was held in Lhasa, marking the creation of this Committee. It also marked the establishment in Tibet of the system of multi-party cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the Communist Party of China (CPC), a system that ensures that all the people in Tibet, from all strata and all circles, can fully voice their opinions and play their roles in political life. The CPC Committee and People's Government of the Tibet Autonomous Region have incorporated political consultation into their decision-making procedure, conducting extensive consultation to solicit the local people's opinions on major issues in social and economic development and concrete problems concerning the people's interests. The CPPCC Tibet committee members come from all circles and all ethnic groups, and are elected on an extensive basis to represent their respective circles or ethnic groups. Uniting all people's societies and people from all ethnic groups and all circles, they diligently perform their duties in political consultation, democratic supervision, and participation in the deliberation and administration of state affairs, and make suggestions based on in-depth investigations or research; as an important driving force for Tibet, they are making great contributions to economic development and social progress in the autonomous region. At present, Tibet has 29 members on the CPPCC National Committee, including 26 from the Tibetan and other ethnic minorities. From 2008 to 2012 the Tenth Tibet Autonomous Regional Committee of the CPPCC received 1,507 proposals and has replied to them all.
实行了民族区域自治制度 Implementing the system of regional ethnic autonomy
在少数民族聚居地方实行民族区域自治,是中国的一项基本政治制度,也是中国解决国内民族问题的基本政策。西藏各族人民除了享有宪法和法律规定的普遍性的政治权利,还享有民族区域自治的特殊性的政治权利。按照《中华人民共和国宪法》和《中华人民共和国民族区域自治法》的规定,西藏自治区享有广泛的自治权利,包括立法权、对国家有关法律的变通执行权、使用民族语言文字的权利、人事管理权、财政管理权和自主发展文化教育权等。 To carry out regional ethnic autonomy in areas where ethnic minorities live in compact communities is a basic political system of China, and also a basic policy to handle problems concerning ethnic minorities in China. All ethnic groups in Tibet enjoy all the political rights prescribed in the Constitution of the People's Republic of China and other laws. In addition, they enjoy political rights specially drawn up for ethnic autonomous regions. According to the Constitution and the Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy, the Tibet Autonomous Region enjoys extensive rights of autonomy, including legislative power, flexible enforcement of relevant state laws, right to use the spoken and written languages of the ethnic minorities, right of personnel management, right of fiscal management, and right to independently develop culture and education.
西藏自治区自1965年成立以来,自治区人民代表大会及其常委会先后制定了290多部地方性法规和具有法规性质的决议、决定,对多项全国性法律制定了适合西藏特点的实施办法。例如,西藏自治区分别于1981年和2004年制定变通条例,将《中华人民共和国婚姻法》规定的男女法定婚龄分别降低两岁,并规定对执行变通条例之前已经形成的一妻多夫和一夫多妻婚姻关系,凡不主动提出解除婚姻关系者,准予维持。再如,在执行全国性法定假日的基础上,西藏自治区还将“藏历新年”、“雪顿节”等西藏传统节日列入自治区的节假日。在全区干部队伍中,藏族及其他少数民族占70.53%,其中县乡两级领导班子中,藏族和其他少数民族占73.03%。西藏自治区成立以来,历届人民代表大会常务委员会主任和人民政府主席由藏族公民担任。民族区域自治制度在西藏的贯彻实施,使西藏各族人民的政治、经济、社会、文化等各项权利得到可靠的保障。 Since the Tibet Autonomous Region was set up in 1965, the regional people's congress and its standing committee have made over 290 local laws and regulations, or resolutions and decisions of a legislative nature, and formulated measures for the flexible implementation of some state laws in Tibet in order to suit local conditions. For example, Tibet made alternative regulations in 1981 and 2004, in which the legally marriageable ages for men and women were both reduced by two years from what was prescribed in the Marriage Law of the People's Republic of China, and polyandrous and polygynous relations that had existed before the regulations took effect would be allowed to continue if no one involved proposes dissolution of the marriage. Another example is that in addition to the national holidays, Tibet has other public holidays, mostly traditional Tibetan festivals such as the Tibetan New Year and Shoton Festival. In the contingent of local officials, 70.53 percent are from the Tibetan and other ethnic minorities, and among county and township leaders, 73.03 percent are from the Tibetan and other ethnic minorities. Since the Tibet Autonomous Region was set up, all the chairpersons of the standing committee of the regional people's congress and of the regional people's government have been elected from the Tibetan ethnic group. The system of regional ethnic autonomy ensures that political, economic, social and cultural rights of the people of all ethnic groups in Tibet are effectively protected.
扩大了城乡基层民主 Expanding community-level democracy in both urban and rural Tibet
在中国,基层民主是人民当家作主的一种有效形式,是扩大公民政治参与的重要途径。经过多年探索,西藏逐步发展形成了具有中国特色、西藏特点的农牧区基层民主制度。在西藏,村民自治制度与民族区域自治制度相结合,推动了基层民主建设制度化、规范化,保障了基层群众参政议政的权利,调动了基层群众政治参与的积极性。1959年7月5日,山南地区克松村的443位农民成立了西藏第一个农民协会,标志着西藏基层民主建设的开端。1993年,颁布《西藏自治区实施〈中华人民共和国村民委员会组织法(试行)〉办法》,全区村委会选举步入规范化轨道。目前,西藏95%以上的村建立了村民代表会议制度,并不断健全以村规民约、村民自治章程为主体的民主管理制度和以村务公开为主要内容的民主监督制度。村务公开、民主管理实现全覆盖,全区90%以上的村设立公开栏,保障群众的知情权、参与权、决策权、监督权。在西藏第七届村(居)委会换届中,有168.68万人进行选民登记,直接参加选举的选民有149.52万人,参选民众踊跃投票,参选率达到88.7%,共选出村(居)委会成员26335人。城市基层民主政治不断完善。西藏192个城市社区全部建立了社区居民代表大会、社区居委会等社区组织,社区居民自治有充分的组织保证。 In China community-level democracy is an effective way of ensuring that the people are masters of their own country, and an important way of expanding the political participation of China's citizens. After years of exploration, Tibet has put in place a system of community-level democracy covering both farming and pastoral areas with Chinese and Tibetan characteristics. In Tibet, the villagers' self-governance system and the system of regional ethnic autonomy have helped institutionalize and regulate community-level democracy, guaranteed the people's rights to participate in and discuss state and regional affairs, and aroused their enthusiasm for political participation. On July 5, 1959 a total of 443 peasants of Khesum Village in the Shannan region founded the first association of peasants in Tibet, starting the building of community-level democracy in Tibet. In 1993 Tibet published the Measures for the Tibetan Autonomous Region's Implementation of the Law of Organizing the Villagers' Committees of the People's Republic of China (For Trial Implementation), ensuring that the election of villagers' committees around the region is conducted according to due procedures. Currently, over 95 percent of the villages in Tibet have established the system of villagers' representative meetings. A democratic management system mainly consisting of village regulations, code of conduct for villagers and self-governance rules, as well as a democratic supervision system that requires village affairs be made known to all villagers are being improved. All villages now make village affairs public and exercise democratic management; and over 90 percent of the villages in Tibet have set up billboards, ensuring the ordinary people's rights to be informed, to participate, to decide and to supervise. During the seventh general election of village (community) committees of Tibet, 1,686,800 people registered, and 1,495,000 voted, making a turnout rate of 88.7 percent; and 26,335 were elected to village or community committees. Community-level democracy has been improving. Tibet's 192 urban communities have all set up community residents' congresses and community committees, providing a solid organizational guarantee for the self-governance of local residents.
新型民族关系得到确立和巩固 Establishing and cementing a new ethnic relationship
西藏自治区以藏族为主体,有藏族、汉族、回族、门巴族、珞巴族、纳西族以及夏尔巴人、僜人等40多个民族。在漫长的历史长河中,西藏各民族共同开发了西藏高原,共同缔造了西藏历史,成为中华民族历史的重要组成部分。中华人民共和国成立后,确立并实施以民族平等、民族团结、民族区域自治和各民族共同繁荣为基本内容的民族政策。和平解放60多年来,国家的民族政策在西藏全面贯彻落实,既消除了导致民族不平等的政治、经济和社会等方面的因素,也消除了西藏地方的阶级差别和人身依附关系,各民族间建立起平等、团结、互助、和谐的社会主义新型民族关系。 In the Tibet Autonomous Region there are over 40 ethnic groups, including those of the Tibetan, Han, Hui, Moinba, Lhoba, Naxi, Sherpa and Deng, with the Tibetan group making up the majority of the population. During the long history of Tibet, these peoples jointly developed the Tibetan Plateau and created the history of Tibet, making it an important part of the history of the Chinese nation. After the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, the Central Government carried out an ethnic policy that stresses ethnic equality and unity, regional ethnic autonomy and the common prosperity of all ethnic groups. For over 60 years since its peaceful liberation, Tibet has fully carried out the state ethnic policy, removing political, economic and social factors that would have resulted in ethnic inequality, while eliminating the class differences and personal bondage relations peculiar to Tibet; thus, it has established a new socialist ethnic relationship featuring equality, unity, mutual-aid and harmony.
在发展社会主义市场经济的推动下,西藏与全国、藏族与其他民族以及西藏自治区内部的自主性人口流动更趋频繁,各民族之间相互往来、相互包容、相互融合成为民族关系的主流。在各民族公民到西藏经商、务工、交流、朝佛、旅游的同时,大量藏族公民从西藏以及四川、云南、甘肃、青海四省的藏族聚居区涌入内地大城市经商、务工、求学、谋职、交流、旅游。根据中国藏学研究中心2011年开展的内地藏族流动人口课题研究,目前在北京、上海、成都、广州、西宁、兰州、昆明等中国大城市,都有为数不等的藏族人口流动或者定居生活。其中,成都市区有户籍藏族人口3万多人,无户籍常住性藏族流动人口在15万至20万之间,在成都市多个县市区已经形成了数个藏族聚居区。西藏自治区政府大力推进民族团结宣传教育,每年9月集中开展民族团结宣传月活动,每年召开一次民族团结进步表彰大会,积极开展民族团结进步创建活动。 Driven by the growing socialist market economy, population movements have become more and more frequent between Tibet and the rest of China, between the Tibetan group and other ethnic groups, and within Tibet; mutual exchanges, tolerance and fusion between ethnic groups has become the mainstream of the ethnic relationship. While people of all ethnic groups go to Tibet for business, work, exchanges, pilgrimages and tourism, numerous Tibetan people leave Tibet and the Tibetan-inhabited areas in Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu and Qinghai provinces, and go to inland cities for business, work, study, exchanges and tourism. The China Tibetology Research Center conducted a research in 2011 to study the migration of Tibetan population in inland China. It found that there are different numbers of Tibetan people, floating or resident, in Beijing, Shanghai, Chengdu, Guangzhou, Xining, Lanzhou, Kunming and other big cities. For example, in the city proper of Chengdu there is a Tibetan population of over 30,000 with registered permanent residence, and 150,000 to 200,000 without registered permanent residence. In addition, areas where Tibetans live in compact communities have appeared in some of the counties and urban districts of Chengdu. The People's Government of the Tibet Autonomous Region has worked hard to educate local people about ethnic unity. It holds a theme campaign every September to increase awareness of ethnic unity. Every year there is a conference for the commendations of those who have been outstanding in promoting ethnic unity and progress. Many other activities are also organized by the government to promote this theme.
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