The United States hosted the first APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting (AELM) at Blake Island, near Seattle. Leaders met for informal discussions on the newly established community of Asia-Pacific economies. This historical meeting was preceded by the 5th APEC Ministerial Meeting, also at Blake Island, from November 17-19, 1993.

Leaders seized this opportunity to share their vision for APEC. In their Declaration, they stressed the importance for the new forum to strengthen cooperation and promote prosperity in the region while harnessing the energy of its diverse economies. They pointed to the reduction of trade and investment barriers as one of the vehicles to achieve these goals through the expansion of trade in the region.

Ministers established the Committee on Trade and Investment (CTI) to increase cooperation on issues such as global trade and investment, flow of goods, services, capital and technology within the region and globally in a manner consistent with World Trade Organization principles. A Budget and Administrative Committee (BAC) was also created to handle budget and administrative issues. It is now known as the Budget Management Committee (BMC).

On this occasion, APEC welcomed Mexico and Papua New Guinea as new members, increasing the total APEC membership from 15 to 17.


The second APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting (AELM) was held in Bogor, Indonesia, on November 15, 1994. Leaders took this opportunity to exchange their views on where the economies of the region needed to go for the next 25 years. The meeting was preceded by the 6th APEC Ministerial Meeting, also in Bogor, on November 11-12, 1993.
In the Declaration they issued at the end of their meeting, Leaders pledged to achieve free and open trade and investment in the Asia-Pacific region by 2010 for developed members and 2020 for developing economies, thus responding to the call of the Eminent Persons Group and the Pacific Business Forum to establish timelines and targets.

Ministers identified twelve Non-Binding Investment Principles for APEC economies to facilitate investment flows within the region. The ad hoc group on Economic Trends and Issues was transformed into the Economic Committee, chaired by Canada from the end of 1994 to 1998. A Policy Level Group on Small-and-Medium-Sized Enterprises was established to address the special needs of this business sector in the region.
Chile joined APEC at the Bogor Summit. The total membership of the organization was up from 17 to 18.


The APEC Economic Leaders met in Osaka, Japan, on 19 November, 1995, for the third time since the organization was created. Their primary agenda was to initiate the work of translating the Blake Island vision and the Bogor goals into reality. The meeting was preceded by the 7th APEC Ministerial Meeting, also in Osaka, November 16-17, 1995.
In their Declaration, Leaders endorsed the Osaka Action Agenda, a blueprint for implementing their commitment to free and open trade and investment, business facilitation, and economic and technical cooperation. The APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC) was established to increase business sector involvement in APEC. Leaders also initiated the FEEEP Program (Food, Environment, Energy, Economic Development, Population) to evaluate how to sustain the region's valuable resources in the context of growing population demands and rapid economic development.

Ministers agreed to an Action Agenda that would facilitate the Bogor commitment. APEC members agreed to compile Individual and Collective Action Plans outlining unilateral and collective measures required to achieve free and open trade and investment by 2010/2020. Part of the Action Agenda deals with economic and technical cooperation based on principles of mutual respect and consensus-building to sustain growth and narrow regional disparities. The Partners for Progress (PFP) mechanism was introduced to support projects that promote economic and technical cooperation more efficiently in APEC, with a particular focus on projects supporting trade and investment liberalization and facilitation (TILF).


The Philippines hosted the 4th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting (AELM) in Subic, on November 25, 1996. The meeting was preceded by the 8th APEC Ministerial Meeting, in Manila, November 22-23, 1996.

In their Declaration, leaders endorsed the Manila Action Plan for APEC (MAPA) and reaffirmed their support of the WTO by calling for the conclusion of an information technology agreement (ITA). Leaders established six priority areas for strengthening economic and technical cooperation including: human resources, efficient capital markets, economic infrastructure, technologies of the future, sustainable development, and small and medium-sized enterprises. Leaders also met with the APEC Business Advisory Council (ABAC) for the first time.

Ministers adopted the Manila Action Plan for APEC (MAPA), integrating the Individual and Collective Action Plans (IAPs, CAPs) as well as progress reports on joint activities. Member economies confirmed their commitment to implement the IAPs and CAPs starting January 1, 1997, and to review progress and chart next steps in November 1997.


Canada hosted the 5th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting (AELM) in Vancouver, November 24-25, 1997. Leaders focused their discussions on financial developments in the Asia-Pacific region. The meeting was preceded by the 9th APEC Ministerial Meeting, also in Vancouver, November 21-22, 1997.

In their Declaration, leaders agreed to strengthen APEC cooperation in support of the International Monetary Fund. They endorsed the Vancouver Framework for Enhanced Public-Private Cooperation on Infrastructure, and called for further efforts to ensure long-term sustainability especially in highly populated urban centres.

Ministers agreed to start a process (known as the Early Voluntary Sectoral Liberalization or EVSL initiative) towards tariff reductions in 15 specific sectors, with work on nine to begin on a priority basis in 1998. They launched cooperative work programs on emergency preparedness, electronic commerce and the impact of trade liberalization, and endorsed the creation of a new sub-committee to increase cooperation on economic and technical cooperation. Ministers also endorsed the Blueprint for Customs Modernization to streamline customs procedures by the year 2001. They encouraged further initiatives to bring labour, management and government representatives together to discuss human resource issues.

APEC Leaders agreed to admit Peru, Russia and Vietnam as new members in 1998, and establish a 10-year period of consolidation to ensure their full integration.


The 6th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting (AELM) took place in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, November 17-18, 1998. Leaders focused their discussions on economic recovery in the region and APEC's response to the crisis. The meeting was preceded by the 10th APEC Ministerial Meeting, also in Kuala Lumpur, November 14-15, 1998.
In their Declaration, Leaders agreed to pursue a cooperative growth strategy to end the financial crisis. They pledged efforts to strengthen social safety nets, financial systems, trade and investment flows, the scientific and technological base, human resources development, economic infrastructure, and business and commercial links so as to provide the base and set the pace for sustained growth into the 21st century. Leaders adopted the Kuala Lumpur Action Program on Skills Development with the objective to contribute towards sustainable growth and equitable development while reducing economic disparities and improving the social well-being of the people, through skills upgrading/improvement.

Ministers reviewed recent developments in the world economy, and expressed concern that the Asian financial crisis has had serious socio-economic implications fro growth, employment and poverty levels in member economies. Ministers tasked Senior Officials to intensify APEC's efforts to address the social impacts of the crisis as a high priority, and supported the work programme of APEC Finance Ministers in strengthening the international and domestic financial systems.

Ministers also called for intensified work on trade facilitation which encouraged the use of technologies and techniques that would help members to build up expertise, reduce costs and lead to better movement of goods and services. They approved the Kuala Lumpur Action Programme on Skills Development to further intensify efforts towards upgrading the skills of the region's human capital and instructed APEC fora, particularly the HRD Working Group, to implement the Action Programme.

But APEC economies were not able to conclude successfully the tariff negotiations mandated under the Early Voluntary Sectoral Liberalization (EVSL) initiative; the tariff elements of these negotiations were transferred to the World Trade Organization (WTO).


New Zealand was host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum events in 1999, which culminated in the 7th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting (AELM) in Auckland, New Zealand, from September 12-13, 1999. The 11th APEC Ministerial Meeting took place September 9-10, 1999 preceding the AELM.

Prime Minister Jean Chr└tien attended the APEC Leaders' Meeting in Auckland, New Zealand. He was accompanied by Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Honourable Lloyd Axworthy and the Secretary of State (Asia-Pacific) Mr. Raymond Chan, who was representing the Honourable Pierre Pettigrew, Minister of International Trade.

Leaders' discussions focussed on the challenges of sustaining domestic economic reform and liberalization as the region continued to recover from the financial crisis. In their Declaration, leaders also reaffirmed the importance of promoting open, transparent and well-governed markets (particularly domestic financial markets) and to achieving the goals of free and open trade and investment in APEC by 2010/2020, as they had agreed at the 2nd APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting in Bogor, Indonesia.
Specifically, Leaders endorsed:

, the recommendations of Finance Ministers on strengthening international financial architecture and domestic financial market supervision, bond market development and corporate governance;

, the launch at Seattle of a new Round of multilateral trade negotiations in the WTO as recommended by Trade Ministers;

, APEC Principles to Enhance Competition Policy and Regulatory Reform and an initial work program aimed at supporting the further development of open, competitive and efficient markets in APEC member economies (in particular in developing member economies);

, Framework for the Integration of Women into APEC.

Leaders also underlined the importance of Y2K remediation and contingency planning, an important Canadian focus in APEC throughout 1999. They called on Trade Ministers to strengthen APEC's work in the area of trade facilitation including through closer dialogue with business and greater peer review. They also called for more work on standards for banking supervisory regimes.

Following the special meeting of APEC foreign ministers in Auckland on September 8, the AELM lent considera


Brunei is host of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum events this year, which will culminate in the 8th APEC Economic Leaders' Meeting (AELM) in Bandar Seri Begawan, Brunei Darussalam on November 15-16 , 2000. The 12th meeting of APEC Ministers will take place on November 12-13 preceding the AELM.

The APEC Trade Ministers will meet in Darwin, Australia on June 6-8 and the Finance Ministers in Brunei on September 6-10.

To prepare for these meetings, the Senior Officials of APEC's 21 member economies will convene February 12-21, May 26-June 3, and September 15-23. Prior to the Economic Leaders' Meeting, they will meet again for an Informal Meeting on November 10-11.

Official themes for APEC 2000 and have not yet been identified, but following some recommendations from APEC 1999, work in the coming year is likely to include:

, strengthening trade facilitation throughout the region;
, initiatives for strengthening markets and expanding opportunities for business throughout the region;
, efforts to improve the Individual Action Plans (IAPs) in partnership with the private sector;
, the challenge of building popular support for economic reform and further trade and investment liberalization.

Brunei has indicated an interest in issues such as youth and electronic commerce.
Canada will continue to play an active role in broadening support for APEC further, and in finding opportunities for economies to exchange experiences in this area.


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