A law regulating the use of new identification cards is one of 110 new laws and regulations coming into force in China from Thursday, including 51 national-level laws.
Some of the new laws and regulations are closely related to daily life, such as the Law on Citizen Identification Cards, the Regulation on Occupational Injury Insurance and the Temporary Measures on Radio and TV Advertisement Administration.
The Law of Citizen Identification Cards is seen as an improvement on the resident ID card regulations adopted in 1985 because it focuses more on safeguarding civil rights.
Under the law, no organization or individual has the right to check or hold a citizen's ID card except for the police who must have good reason. The police must keep confidential any personal information obtained from ID cards. The new ID card, which has integrated circuit (IC) technology, can be read by computer as well.
The new law enlarges the scope of ID card holders by including those below the age of 16, who can exercise their civil rights.
The regulation on occupational injury insurance clearly stipulates that all Chinese enterprises, as long as they have employees, must buy occupational safety insurance for workers, and injuries incurred traveling to or from work should be classified as occupational injuries.
Under the regulation, sudden death at the work place during work time and injury in safeguarding public property should be also classified as occupational injuries.
The temporary measures on radio and television advertisement administration clearly stipulate that pornographic content or content advocating cult or superstitious thinking is prohibited in advertisements broadcast on TV and radio.
Advertisements for tobacco, illegal drugs, medicines for mental diseases and medicines with toxic substances are also banned from TV and radio programs.
In line with the new measures, advertisements for medicines for beriberi and hemorrhoids are forbidden to be broadcast during mealtimes.
The new Regulation on Import and Export Duties improves the legal system on revenue collection in accordance with China's commitments to the World Trade Organization (WTO). The new rule, which will replace the 1985 regulations, adds clear and specific provisions about the definition of customs value and relevant tariff rates, which conform to WTO rules.
The temporary measures on achievement assessment of state-owned enterprise heads regulate that the Commission for Supervision and Management of State-owned Properties under the State Council will conduct annual achievement assessments of every chairman and vice chairman, general manager, and deputy general manager of all state-owned enterprises. The assessment outcome will decide their pay and rewards.
The interim regulations on foreign investment ratios in cinemas allow for foreign investment to eventually surpass half of the capital invested in China's major cities.
At present, foreign enterprises are only allowed to build cinemas as minority shareholders in ventures or cooperative businesses.
(Xinhua News Agency January 1, 2004)