This kind of songs is widely popular in mountainous areas or in the fields, its music has such characters such as free rhythms, broad range, and exalt tune. For example, "Hua'er" is such a favorite song in northwest China provinces such as Gansu, Ningxia and Qinghai; "Xinrianyou", "Climbing Song" and "Shan'qu are popular in Shaanxi and Shanxi Provinces; "Zhengjinghong" is popular in southern Anhui Province; Xingguo Shan'ge in Jiangxi province; Hengyang Shan'ge in Hunan Province; Hakka Shan'ge in Guangdong Province.
The Shan'ge of the minorities is usually popular in plateaus, mountainous area s or prairies, such as "lalu" of Tibetan ethnic group, "changdiao" (aradun-urtu-yin-daguu) of Mongolia ethnic group, "feige" of Miao ethnic group. Its music is usually in the form of free measures with the characters of un-restrainedness, sonorousness, vehemence and melodiousness. "Chao'er" of Mongolia, a form of Mongolia changdiao, is played only on ceremonious occasions.
(ChinaCulture.org August 2, 2005)