October 16, 1964, China successfully exploded its first atomic bomb.
However, this brilliant success was achieved under extremely difficult conditions.
When the People's Republic of China was founded in 1949, the Soviet Union agreed to aid China technologically in the development of nuclear industry. However, in June 1959, the USSR refused to provide relevant information as it had previously promised. Moreover, the Soviet Union recalled all technicians and advisers from China.
In July 1960 Chairman Mao Zedong called on Chinese scientists to rely on their own efforts and develop China's atomic bomb within eight years.
On October 16, 1964, China successfully exploded its first atomic bomb. The Chinese people had finally developed their own nuclear technology.
On the same day, the Chinese government made a solemn promise to the world that it developed nuclear weapons only for the purpose of self-defense and safeguarding national security. China would never at any time or under any circumstances be the first to use nuclear weapons.
(China.org.cn, 17thcongress.org.cn October 16, 2007)