So far, China has established cooperative relations in science and technology with 150 countries and regions, and concluded governmental agreements on scientific and technological or economic and technological cooperation with nearly 100 countries and regions. Meanwhile, international scientific and technological cooperation and exchanges carried out on a non-governmental basis are becoming more active. The China Association for Science and Technology and its affiliated organizations have joined 244 international scientific and technological organizations; 293 scientific researchers hold the posts of executive member or director of the executive councils or boards of directors or higher posts in international scientific and technological organizations; 281 hold leading posts on the special committees of international organizations; and 253 scientists from the CAS hold posts with international scientific organizations. The China Natural Science Foundation has concluded cooperative agreements and memorandums with the science foundation organizations of 36 countries. Over the past five years, China has invited over 400,000 foreign experts, and dispatched approximately 200,000 technical and managerial persons abroad to receive training.