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Development
In the latter half of the 20th century, especially in the two decades after the initiation of reform and opening to the outside world, China's industry has developed at a high speed. Between 1952 and 2000, the average annual growth rate of industrial increments reached 11.5 percent, as calculated in constant prices. Of this, the average annual growth rate between 1979 and 2000 came to 11.6 percent. In 2001, the combined assets of all the st ate and large non-state industrial enterprises amounted to 13,418.4billion yuan, and the nation's industrial added value came to 4,260.7 billion yuan, an increase of 8.9 percent over that of the previous year.

In the past five decades and more, major industrial products have increased by dozens of or even a hundred times. Since 1996, China has been in the lead in the production of steel, coal, cement, farm-use chemical fertilizers and television sets.


Increases in Outputs of Major Industrial Products

3,178
Product Unit 1952 1978 2000< /td> 2001
Raw coal 100 million tons 0.66 6.18 10.00 11.1
Crude oil 10,000 tons 44 10,405 16,300 16,500
Power 100 million kwh 73 2,566 13,556 14,780
Steel 10,000 tons 135 12,850 15,266
Cement 10,000 tons 286 6,524 59,700 64,000
Automobiles 10,000 14.91 207.00 233,40
Color TV sets 10,000 0.38 3,936.00 3,967.10< /td>
Chemical fibers 10,000 tons 28.46 694.00 828.30
Yarn 10,000 tons 65.6 238.2 657.00 699.8
Cloth 100 million m 38.3 110.3 277.00 290.6
Sugar 10,000 tons 45 22 7 700.00 619
Sulfuric acid 10,000 tons 19 661 2,427 2,740.1
Farm-use chemical fertilizers 10,000 tons 3.9 869.3 3,186 3,396.5
Pesticides 10,000 tons 0.2 53.3 60.7 69.6
Integrated circuits 100 million pieces 58.8 63.6
Program-controlled switchboards 10,000 lines 10,000 lines 7,136.0 7,223.5
Mobile telecommunications equipment 10,000 sets 10,000 sets 1,505.0 2,473.9
Micro-electronic computers 10,000 sets 10,000 sets 672.0 758.0

In 1978, China had only the public-ownership economy, state-owned enterprises making up 77.6 percent and collectively-owned enterprises, 22.4 percent. The policy of reform and opening to the outside world has given extensive scope to the common development of various economic sectors. The individual and privately-owned industrial enterprises and enterprises with foreign, Hong Kong, Macao or Taiwan investments have developed rapidly. In 2000, the total output value of state-owned and state-owned holding industrial enterprises made up 48.3 percent of the total output value of the state and large non-state industr ial enterprises, their industrial added value 59.2 percent, their employees 55.5 percent, and their total profits 56.1 percent, the total industrial output value of collectively-owned enterprises made up 15.2 percent of the total industrial output value of the state and large non-state enterprises; their industrial added value 13.9 percent, and their employees 16.6 percent; the industrial output value of the enterprises with foreign, Hong Kong, Macao or Taiwan investments accounted for 27.1 percent, their industrial added value 22.5 percent, and their employees 14.7 percent; and the total industrial output value of individual and privately-owned enterprises made up 9.4percent, and their employees 13.2 percent.

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