Topography and geomorphology:
The topographies of Jiangxi are dominated by mountainous and hilly land, with mountains covering 36 percent of the province's total territory, hills, 42 percent. The remaining 22 percent is composed of plains and waters. Most of its mountains lie on the provincial borders. Mount Huaiyu in the northeast has the provinceís largest copper reserve; Wuyi Mountain, a World Cultural Heritage site, lies in the eastern part; the Dageng Ridge and Jiulian Mountain in the south are known as the "capital of tungsten"; in the west there is the Luoxiao Mountain; and in the northwest lie the mountains of Mufu and Jiuling.
Jiangxiís annual average temperature is around 18įC. Temperatures in the northeastern and northwestern areas and that along the Yangtze River are lower than other parts of the province, ranging from 16įC to 17įC. The other parts of the province are warmer, with temperatures ranging from 18įC-20įC.
Jiangxi has plentiful rainfall. The average annual rainfalls range between 1,341 mm and 1,940 mm. Precipitation is richer in its southern, eastern and mountainous regions and less in the northern, western and basin areas. The average annual rainfall in the mountains of Wuyi, Huaiyu and Jiuling can be as high as 1,800-2,000 mm while that of the area along the Yangtze River and the Poyang Lake and the Jitai Basin is between 1,350 mm and 1,400 mm. The other parts of the province have average annual rainfalls of 1,500-1,700 mm.
Jiangxi has abundant mineral resources. Of the 150 known minerals, more than 140 have been found in Jiangxi. Among these, the deposits of 89 have been verified, with 33 of them ranking among the top fives of the country. Ferrous metals in Jiangxi include iron, manganese, titanium and vanadium. Among the 13 non-ferrous and precious metals are copper, lead, zinc, gold and silver. There are also 29 rare and rare-earth minerals, such as niobium and tantalum. The province has developed the largest copper mine in Asia and its copper smelting base is the largest in China.
Fifty-nine percent of Jiangxiís territory is covered with forest. Its timber reserve amounts to 250 million cubic meters, in addition to 1 billion plants of bamboo, both figures taking leading positions in the country. Most of the forests in the province belong to natural secondary forests. Coniferous forests occupy a larger proportion, with pine and masson pine being the major species. Tea-oil tree, tung tree and Chinese tallow tree are the major economic species scattering across the province.
The province boasts more than 4,000 species of seed plants, some 470 types of pteridophyte and over 100 types of bryophyte. Among the low plants, the varieties of large fungus alone are as many as 500. There are more than 2,000 species of woody plants, including over 400 kinds of arbor. Jiangxi is also home to many ancient trees, such as ginkgo, known as the "living fossil" of plants.
The good ecological environment characterized with rich water resource, changing topographies and wide coverage of vegetation ensures Jiangxiís abundance in wildlife. And its protection of the environment and wildlife has shown effective results in recent years.
Jiangxi now has over 600 kinds of vertebrates, including over 170 species of fish which account for 21.4 percent of the national total of freshwater fish. There are more than 40 species of amphibious animals, accounting for 20.4 percent of the national total; some 70 species of reptiles, accounting for 23.5 percent of the country; 270 species of birds, accounting for 23.2 percent; and 50 species of beasts, accounting for 13.3 percent of the nationís total.
Fish and birds, large in number of species, have great economic value and therefore have the priority for protection. Poyang Lake presents an ideal winter shelter for migratory birds.
Jiangxi boasts more than 2,400 rivers and streams, some 160 of which, totaling 18,400 km in length, having water running all year round. Ganjiang, Fuhe, Xinjiang, Xiuhe and Raohe are the five largest rivers in the province. Jiangxiís total water reserve is 141.6 billion cubic meters; both the figures of per capita and per unit of cultivated land are higher than the national average. The abundant water resources have created a favorable condition for Jiangxiís industrial and agricultural production.
Jiangxi has beautiful landscapes with green mountains and clear waters. The major scenic spots include: Mount Lushan, Jinggang Mountain, Longhu (Dragon and Tiger) Mountain, Sanqing Mountain, Poyang Lake, and the cities of Nanchang and Jingdezhen.
Mount Lushan has been listed as a World Heritage site by the UNESCO. Together with Jinggang and Sanqing mountains, it offers charming peaks and quiet valleys.
Guifeng Peak and Dragon Palace are noted for their precipitous cliffs and deep caves. The landscapes of Poyang Lake and Ganjiang River are attractive while ancient temples at Longhu Mountain, Qingyuan and Donglin attract visitors with unique religious architectures.
Other scenic attractions or sites of historical interest include Tengwang Tower, Bajing Terrace, the former residences of historical nobilities in Linchuan and Jiujiang, headquarters of the Red Army on Jinggang Mountain, Memorial Museum of Nanchang Uprising and Ruijin, the first capital of the Communist administration in China.
The northern Jiangxi triangle tourism zone comprising Nanchang, Lushan Mountain, Jiujiang, Poyang Lake and Longhu Mountain is one of the 14 major international tour routes in China. The province has 11 cultural relics put under state protection and 2,406 of its scenic spots or tourism areas have been registered as major provincial projects.