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Bilateral Exchanges and Cooperation in the Fields of Science, Technology, Culture, Education, Health and Military

1. Scientific and Technological Cooperation

The scientific and technological cooperation between the Chinese Government and the Canadian Government began in 1972. At present, the governmental departments between the two countries have signed 25 agreements or MOUs on scientific, economic and technological cooperation. In recent years, the major fields of cooperation include:


1). Energy: In 1994, China and Canada signed the agreement on the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Beijing. In 1995, both sides signed the MOU on the construction of the Qinshan CANDU nuclear power plant. The signing of the Qinshan nuclear power plant export credit agreement in 1997 marked the beginning of the biggest cooperation project between China and Canada.


In 1997, the Ministry of Water Resources of China and the Ministry of Natural Resources of Canada signed the MOU on cooperation.


2). Agriculture: In 1998, the Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation and the Canadian International Development Agency signed the MOU on the Sustainable Development of Agricultural Nutrition Management and Strategic Project of China. During the same year, the State Forestry Administration of China and the Department of Natural Resources of Canada signed the MOU on Cooperation in the Field of Forestry.


3). Environmental Protection: In 1998 and 1999, China and Canada signed the Framework Statement for Cooperation on Environment into the 21st Century and Environmental Cooperation Action Plan respectively.


Besides, the two countries have also cooperation in space technology, remote sensing, telecommunications, meteorology, seas and oceans, fishery, forestry and some other basic sciences. The universities and academic research institutions of the two countries have also conducted exchange and cooperation at multiple levels through various channels.


2. Cultural Exchange


After the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries, the official and non-governmental cultural exchanges were strengthened. In the 1980s, such exchanges increased gradually, covering many fields such as culture, arts, movies and television programs, book publishing, social sciences and sports. The visits of performing groups from both sides and the exhibitions of cultural relics and arts were more frequent than before.


Since the beginning of 1990s, the cultural exchanges between the two countries have been growing at a faster pace. In 1992, the Canadian cultural officials visited China and reached an agreement with the Ministry of Culture on the governmental cultural exchange programs from 1992 to 1993. In 1994, the memorandum of cultural exchange for the period of 1995-1996 was signed. In 1998, the two sides signed the new MOU on cultural exchange and cooperation. In November 1998, the State Administration of Cultural Heritage of China and the Canadian Foundation for the Protection of Chinese Cultural and Historical Treasures signed the Agreement on Preservation of Cultural Heritage. In the most recent few years, the cultural exchanges between the two countries have been rather active with the development of the bilateral political and economic relations. There are also breakthroughs in the cooperative methods as well as improvement in the artistic level of cultural exchange programs. At present, there are about 80 cultural exchange programs between China and Canada each year.


3. Educational and Health Exchange and Cooperation


Since 1970, China and Canada have made comprehensive and rapid progress on the exchange of education. The educational departments of the two countries, especially the institutions of higher learning, have built up exchanges and cooperation in various forms. The high-level academic exchanges are conducted in various fields with the participation of more personnel. Besides, the two sides have also exchanged academic delegations, teachers, students, information and materials, made cooperative researches, trained doctors jointly and co-sponsored academic seminars and training courses. As a result, the understanding between the educational departments and academic circles of the two countries was deepened, and the academic research capability and management skills of both sides were improved.


In 1995, a MOU on cooperation was signed between the health departments of the two countries and their cooperation in the field of health started. In 1997, the Ministry of Health of China and the Department of Health of Canada Signed the Action Plan on Cooperation in the Field of Health and Medicine for the period 1997-1999.


4. Military Exchange


China and Canada began to mutually accredit military attaches in 1973. In the 1980s, Vice Minister Xiao Ke and Minister Zhang Aiping of National defense of China visited Canada respectively. Minister J. J. Lamontagne and Chief of the Defense Staff General P. D. Manson of the Department of National Defense of Canada also visited China respectively. In 1995, Deputy Chief of the Defense Staff Vice Admiral L. G. Mason visited China. In 1996, Deputy Chief of General Staff of the People's Liberation Army General Qian Shugen paid a visit to Canada. In 1998, the Flotilla of the Canadian Navy visited Shanghai. In February 2000, Assistant Deputy Minister Calder from National Defense Canada visited China. In May, missile destroyer HMCS Algonquin and missile escort vessel HMCS Winnipeg, led by Rear Admiral Kenneth F. McMillan of the Canadian Fleet Pacific, paid a visit to Qingdao. In September, missile destroyer Qingdao and supporting vessel Tai Cang from the Chinese navy paid a four-day good-will visit to Canada.


(Chinese Foreign Ministry, November, 2003)


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