So far, China cooperates through programs in science and technology with 152 countries and regions. Meanwhile, international scientific and technological cooperation and exchanges on a non-governmental basis have been increasing. The China Association for Science and Technology and its affiliated organizations have joined 244 international scientific and technological organizations; 293 scientific researchers hold the posts of executive member or director of the executive councils or boards of directors or higher posts in international scientific and technological organizations; 281 hold leading posts on the special committees of international organizations; and 253 scientists from CAS hold posts with international scientific organizations. The China Natural Science Foundation has concluded cooperative agreements and memorandums with science foundation organizations of 36 countries.
The 14th Conference of Third World Academy of Sciences was held in Beijing in October 2003. A non-governmental organization, the academy was initiated by Nobel physics laureate, Abdus Salam, of Pakistan in 1983. It has 626 academicians from 77 countries and regions. A total of 89 Chinese scientists have been elected academicians. Over 500 academicians from the Third World Academy of Sciences, including winners of Nobel Prize, representatives of international organizations and specially invited representatives, attended the conference in Beijing to discuss developing countries' plans for scientific and technological development.