They are closely related. Well-managed conditions are pivotal if HPAI is to be stopped.
Chickens and waterfowl should not be reared together. Waterfowl are significant carriers of avian influenza viruses and can do so without displaying any warning symptoms. However the viruses that lie hidden in their bodies will be excreted with their feces, contaminating water sources and their surroundings generally. The viral infections they carry can readily be passed on to chickens and other domestic fowl with which they are raised in close proximity.
Given the ease of contact with other fowl and migratory birds and with the environment, feed and potable water all of which can be contaminated by wild birds, domestic poultry which is reared following free-range methods of husbandry are particularly at risk of being infected with bird flu viruses.
Poultry raised through intensive methods will be less likely to become infected. This is due to effective environmental quarantine, rigid control of the circulation of personnel and goods plus strong veterinary health and anti-epidemic measures. Moreover, preventive measures can be put in place quickly in the event of an occurrence of bird flu.
(China.org.cn February 13, 2004)