In 1998, the State Council underwent a major reform of its structure. Now it is composed of the General Affairs Office, 28 ministries and commissions (including the People' Bank of China and the National Auditing Office), 17 directly affiliated organs and 7 working offices, in addition to a number of directly administered institutions.
1. The General Affairs Office
It is an organ assisting leaders of the State Council in dealing with their routine work. It is responsible for preparing meetings of the State Council, assisting leaders of the State Council to organize meetings to make decisions and implement them, drafting or reviewing documents issued in the name of the State Council or the General Affairs Office of the State Council, studying inquiries from various ministries and commissions of the State Council and from local governments of the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government and then offering its suggestions of answers for the approval by leaders of the State Council, supervising, urging, reviewing and following up the implementation of documents, decisions and directives of the State Council or its leaders by various departments of the State Council and local people's governments, timely reporting to leaders of the State Council important suggestions and problems raised in letters from the public and during their visits and conducting special investigations in responding to these suggestions and problems.
The General Affairs Office of the State Council is divided into four bureaus and two departments, namely, the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd bureaus of secretaries, bureau of letters and visits, departments of personnel and of administration.
2. Ministry of Foreign Affairs
An administrative organ of the State Council in charge of implementing state foreign policies and dealing with daily routine work in foreign affairs, it mainly shoulders such responsibilities as representing China and the Chinese Government in administering foreign affairs, including promulgating policies and decisions relating to foreign affairs, promulgating diplomatic documents and statements, conducting diplomatic negotiations, concluding treaties and agreements, taking part in international and inter-governmental meetings and activities of the United Nations and other international organizations, overseeing the establishment of embassies, consulate-generals and other representative offices abroad, administering staff stationed abroad, guiding, organizing and coordinating diplomatic activities of foreign affairs organs of various ministries and offices of the State Council as well as those of the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the Central Government and the training and administering of diplomatic staff members.
3. Ministry of National Defense
Its major functions are to be in charge of the building up of national armed forces including the structure and setup of the armed forces, military service work, armaments, education and training of military personnel, scientific research for national defense, the ranking system, building of the national defense reserve force and education on national defense.
4. National Development and Reform Commission
A macro-control department of the State Council, its major functions are:
(1) To organize and implement national economic and social development strategies, long- and medium-term and annual plans; propose goals and policies for national economic development and optimization of important economic structures; put forward proposals for various economic measures and policies; make reports on the national economic and social development plans to the National People's Congress on behalf of the State Council;
(2) To study and analyze domestic and international economic trends and developments and make macro-economic forecasts and warnings; study important issues involving national economic security, put forward macro-control policy suggestions, coordinate comprehensive economic and social developments; to be in charge of regulation and readjustment of routine economic operations and solve major issues in economic operations;
(3) To compile and analyze financial and monetary situations, take part in the making of financial and currency policies, draw up and organize the implementation of industrial and pricing policies; make comprehensive analysis of the effect and result in the implementation of financial, monetary, industrial and pricing policies and supervise and inspect the implementation of industrial and pricing policies; draw up and readjust the prices of a minority of important commodities controlled by the state and important fee-charging standards; to be in charge of the control of the total amount and optimization of the structure as well as the monitoring of foreign debts, and maintain international balance of payment;
(4) To study major issues in economic restructuring and opening up to the outside world, organize the drawing up of plans for comprehensive economic restructuring, coordinate plans for economic restructuring in specific areas; put forward suggestions for improving socialist market economic system and promoting development through reform and opening up, provide guidance to and promote overall economic restructuring;
(5) To propose the overall scale of investment in fixed asset, plan key projects and the layout of productive forces; make arrangement for state financial funding for construction, guide and supervise overseas loans for construction and the direction of policy-guided loans; guide the investment direction of private capital in fixed assets; put forward the strategy, goals and policies for total balance and optimization of foreign capital and overseas investment; make arrangement for construction projects with state appropriations and key construction projects, key foreign investment projects, overseas resource development projects and large-sum hard currency investment projects; organize and manage the work of special inspectors for key projects;
(6) To promote the strategic readjustment and upgrading of the industrial structure; put forward development strategies and plans for key national economic industries; study and coordinate major issues in agriculture and rural economic and social development, coordinate rural special planning and policies; guide industrial development, promote industrialization and IT development; draw up industrial regulations, guide the drawing up of industrial technological rules and regulations as well as industrial standards; draw up energy development plans for petroleum, natural gas, coal and power; promote hi-tech development, implement technological progress and provide macro-guidance on industrial modernization; guide the digestion of major technologies and complete sets of equipment introduced;
(7) To study and analyze the development of regional economy and urbanization, propose coordination of regional economic development and the planning of the strategy to develop the western region, put forward strategies and major policies and measures for the development of urbanization; to be in charge of the coordination of regional economic cooperation and guide regional economic cooperation;
(8) To study and analyze domestic and international market situations, to be in charge of the total balance and macro-control of major commodities; compile import and export plans for major agricultural produce, industrial products and raw materials, supervise the implementation of such plans; manage national reserve of key materials and commodities such as grain, cotton, sugar, petroleum and drugs and put forward strategies and plans for modern logistics development;
(9) To maintain the coordination and balance between social understandings for population and family planning, science and technology, education, culture and health and national defense on one hand and national economic development on the other; put forward policies for development and mutual promotion of the economy and social undertakings and coordinate major issues in the development of social understandings;
(10) To promote sustainable development strategies, study and draw up plans for the conservation and comprehensive use of resources, take part in the planning of eco-construction, coordinate major issues in eco-construction and the conservation and comprehensive use of resources; organize and coordinate the work of environmental industries;
(11) To study the situation of multiple economic ownership, put forward suggestions for the optimization of ownership structure and enterprise organizational structure, promote fair competition and common development of enterprises of different kinds of ownership; study and put forward policies and measures for the promotion of small and medium-size enterprises and the non-state sector of the economy, strengthen macro-guidance and coordinate major development issues;
(12) To study and put forward policies on promoting employment, readjusting income distribution, improving social security and coordinated economic development, coordinate major issues in employment, income distribution and social securities;
(13) To draft laws and draw up regulations in regard to national economic and social development, economic restructuring and opening up to the outside world, and take part in the drafting and implementing of related laws and regulations; and
(14) To undertake other jobs delegated by the State Council.
It also oversees the State Grain Administration and State Tobacco Monopoly Administration.
The commission is composed of 26 departments (or offices), including the general affairs office, policy research office, development planning department, comprehensive national economy department, economic operation bureau (also office of the inter-ministerial meeting for reducing burdens of enterprises), comprehensive economic restructuring department, fixed asset investment department, industrial development department, overseas capital utilization department, regional economy department (office of the State Policy Coordination Group for Climate Changes), rural economy department, energy bureau (State Petroleum Reserve Office), transport department, industry department (office of the Leading Group for the Work on the Implementation of Convention on Banning Chemical Weapons, rare earth office, salt industrial management office), hi-tech industry department, small and medium-size enterprise department, environment and comprehensive use of resources department, social development department, economic and trade department, financial and monetary affairs department, pricing department, price supervision and inspection department, employment and income distribution department, laws and regulations department, foreign affairs department, and personnel department.
5. Ministry of Education
A ministry in charge of education undertakings and work related to language, its major functions are: studying and drafting policies and guidelines for educational work, drafting laws and regulations concerning education, putting forward educational reform and development strategies and national plans for the development of educational undertakings, formulating policies for reforming the educational system and the key issues, structures and speed of the development of education, providing guidance and coordinating the implementation of the policies.
The ministry consists of 18 departments (or offices): the general affairs office, research office, development planning department, personnel department, finance department, basic education department, vocational and adult education department, higher education department, ethnic minority education department, teachers training department, education supervision corps office, social science research and ideological and political work department, university student affairs department, science and technology department, physical culture, health and art education department, language application administrative department, language information administrative department, and international cooperation and exchange department.
6. Ministry of Science and Technology
Its major functions are: studying and proposing macro-strategy for scientific and technological development, policies, guidelines and regulations for promoting economic and social development with science and technology, studying major issues of promoting economic and social development with science and technology, studying and formulating major plans and priority areas of scientific and technological development, promoting national science and technology creation system and raising the ability of creation, compiling national long- and medium-term plans and annual plans for the development of civil-use science and technology, studying and proposing policies, guidelines and measures for reforming the science and technology system, promoting the establishment of scientific creation mechanisms adapted to the socialist market economy and the development rules of science and technology.
The ministry consists of nine departments (or offices): the general affairs office, personnel department, policy, regulation and system reform department, development planning department, condition and finance department, international cooperation department, basic research department, hi-tech development and industrialization department, rural and social development department.
7. Commission of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defense
The commission is a comprehensive administrative office of the state for national defense science, technology and industries.
8. State Commission of Ethnic Affairs
Its major functions are to implement the state policies and guidelines on ethnic minority work, study and put forward policies, guidelines and development strategy in regard to the work concerning ethnic minorities; formulate regulations and rules on the administration of ethnic minority affairs, improve the legal system concerning all ethnic groups; organize and conduct investigation on major issues concerning theories, policies and issues related to ethnic minorities, undertake publicity and education and supervise the implementation of policies, laws and regulations on ethnic minorities; supervise the implementation and improve the system of ethnic autonomy in regions where such autonomy is practiced and supervise and guarantee the rights and interests of ethnic minorities and study and formulate principles and methods for coordinating the relationship between ethnic groups, promote the equality, unity, and mutual cooperation among various ethnic groups, coordinate major issues concerning the relationships among ethnic groups and safeguard social stability and state integrity.
The commission is made up of eight divisions: the general affairs office and departments of policies, laws and regulations, economic development, cultural and publicity affairs, education, international affairs, planning and finance as well as personnel.
9. Ministry of Public Security
It is an organization in charge of public security in the country and the highest leading and commanding organ of the Armed Police. Its main functions are to study and formulate guidelines, policies, rules and regulations concerning public security work, make plans for public security work in the whole country and guide and check out on the implementation of the work by local public security organs; guide investigations of cases of sabotaging stability and harming state security as well as civil cases, and organize and coordinate major actions; coordinate the action against serious cases and turmoil and major public security incidences; provide guidance to local public security organs in administering social security, resident registration, resident IDs, border defense, entry and exit in accordance with law; organize the implementation of the work against fire accidents; administer safety in traffic on roads and streets in the country and maintain traffic order; take charge of the safety operation of computer and information systems in the country; plan and guide national public security forces and explore a public security management system adapted to the situation in the country.
10. Ministry of State Security
In charge of safeguarding state security, the ministry has the following major responsibilities: taking care of counter-espionage work, preventing, holding in check and combating illegal criminal activities endangering China's state security and interests in accordance with law, defending state security, maintaining social and political stability, guaranteeing socialist construction, publicizing and educating Chinese citizens to be loyal to the motherland, maintaining state secret, state security and interests.
11. The Ministry of Supervision
It is a state organ in charge of law enforcement and supervision. Its main responsibilities include: to exercise unified leadership over the administrative supervisory work, study the administrative supervisory system, stipulate administrative supervisory guidelines, policies and regulations and organize and supervise their implementation; examine problems that the supervised have in observing and implementing state laws, regulations and decisions and orders promulgated by the State Council, investigate issues of universal and tendentious nature and report them to the State Council; handle cases of and reports and charges against the supervised in violating administrative discipline, investigate and deal with the conducts of the supervised in violating administrative discipline; handle appeals of the supervised against disciplinary punishment; decide on the appointment and removal of officials to be stationed in various departments by the ministry, and approve the appointment and removal of officials sent by supervisory organs to provincial level administrative departments; organize and guide the professional training of the staff in the country's administrative supervisory departments.
12. Ministry of Civil Affairs
A department of the State Council in charge of social administrative affairs, the ministry shoulders the following major responsibilities: to formulate the basic guidelines, policies, regulations, rules and regulations for civil administrative work, study and put forward development plans for social administrative undertakings; study and put forward standards for special care and preferential treatment, pensions and subsidies for various types of recipients and the standard for the pension of state employees after their death or after they incur injury; formulate the plan and implementation rules for taking care of demobilized army men, retired army men and workers who have worked in the military but have received no military ranking; organize and coordinate disaster relief work, organize and check the seriousness of disasters, manage and distribute disaster-relief materials and funding from the Central Government and supervise the use of the materials and funding, organize and guide the donation for disaster-stricken regions and conduct international cooperation on reducing disasters; establish and implement the system of ensuring a minimum living standard for citizens; organize and provide guidance for social assistance activities such as poverty relief, guide social relief and assistance, guide the democratic election of villagers committees, democratic decision-making, democratic management and supervision as well as the building up of neighborhood committees in urban areas, and promote the openness in village affairs, the build up of democratic political system and urban community development; formulate guidelines, policies and regulations in regard to marriage; formulate the overall plan for setting up administrative divisions, handle the approval of establishing, dismissal, altering, and change of the names and borderlines of administrative divisions as well as the relocation of the governments at the county level or above, take charge of the order of listing and short-form naming of the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities directly under the Central Government and special administrative regions, take charge of the approval of the names of administrative divisions at the county level or above, the approval of the naming and change of names of important natural and geographical entities, international public domain, space geographical entities and border areas, formulate plans for translating place names in ethnic minority regions and in foreign countries into Chinese script, standardize and administer the establishment of symbols for place names in the country, take charge of the examination and approval of books and materials on standardized names of places in and outside China; organize, coordinate and guide the finalization and administration of the borders of county-level administrative areas in the provinces, the investigation and mediation of border disputes among provinces; shoulder the administrative management of the protection of the interests of people with special difficulties such as the old-age people, orphans, and households of infirm and childless old people, provide guidance for the guarantee of the rights and interests of the disabled, formulate related guidelines, policies, regulations and rules; formulate guidelines and policies regarding funeral and interment work and promote the reform of funeral and interment practices; stipulate guidelines and policies on adopting children, provide guidance to the work involving child adoption both in China and in relation to areas outside China, work out guidelines and policies on taking in and sending home those leaving homes for various reasons, and coordinate such work between provinces; take part in activities with international organizations on civil affairs, take charge of bilateral and multilateral exchange and cooperation among governments, non-governmental organizations and international aid organizations in relations to civil affairs and take care of the settling down and sending home of international refugees in China.
The ministry has ten offices and departments, namely: the general affairs office, non-governmental organizations bureau, relief arrangement bureau, disaster relief department, local government and community building department, administrative division department, social welfare and social affairs department, finance and ministerial organs department, foreign affairs department and personnel and education department.
13. Ministry of Justice
Its major functions are to study and formulate policies, guidelines and regulations on judicial administration, compile long- and medium-term work plan and annual work plan and supervise their implementation; provide guidance to and supervise the implementation of criminal punishment, work on reforming criminals and reeducation through labor, and guide the administration of the work of prisons; stipulate plans on legal publicity and popularization of knowledge of law and implement such plans, guide various localities and sectors in doing their work in accordance with law and the publicity of the legal system; guide and supervise the work of lawyers, legal consultants, legal aid, notarization institutions and their notarization activities; lead local judicial administrative organs in managing the work of people's mediators, judicial assistants, grassroots judicial offices and legal service work at the grassroots level; take part in the drafting of laws entrusted by the National People's Congress and the State Council; organize the study of human rights in the judicial field and the participation in the drafting and negotiation of international judicial assistance agreements of the United Nations, be in charge of the implementation of international judicial agreements and conduct intergovernmental legal exchange and cooperation.
The ministry has nine departments: the general affairs office, prison administrative bureau, bureau of reeducation through labor, legal publicity department, lawyer and notarization work guidance department, grassroots work guidance department, law and regulation education department, judicial assistance and eternal affairs department, and finance and equipment department. Besides it also operates a political work department to provide guidance to the building up of the judicial administrative staff rank and the education of judicial administrative officials.
14. Ministry of Finance
A macro-control and regulation organ in charge of financial expenditures and revenues, financial and taxation policies, and the basic work of state-owned capital, the ministry shoulders the following main responsibilities, namely, to formulate and implement financial and taxation development strategies, policies, guidelines, long- and medium-term plans, reform plans and other related policies, take part in the mapping out of various macro-economic policies, put forward proposals on using financial and taxation policies to realize macro-control and comprehensive balance of social wealth, formulate and implement distribution policies between the central and local authorities and between the state and enterprises; draft laws and regulations concerning finances, administration of state-owned capital and accounting, formulate and implement such regulations, organize international negotiations and drafting of agreements concerning finance and debts involving foreign countries; draft annual central budgets and organize the implementation, report on the central and local budgets and their implementation to the National People's Congress and report to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress on the final accounting as entrusted by the State Council; manage revenues of the central finance, capital outside the central budget and special financial accounts, and administer government funds; propose legislative plan on taxation, make arrangement and finalize financial and taxation revenue plans according to state budget, put forward proposals on the increase or reduction of taxes, readjustment of tax items and rates, reduction and exemption of taxes and provisional and special tax reduction and exemption which are of great impact on the central finance, take part in the negotiation on taxation involving foreign countries and international tariff, conclude the drafts of taxation agreements involving foreign countries, draft model copies of international taxation agreements, and take care of the routine work of the Tariff Regulation Committee of the State Council; manage the public expenditure of the central finance, draft and implement policies regarding government purchasing, manage the non-trade foreign exchange of administrative organs, government institutions and social organizations within the financial budget and the international balance within the financial budget; formulate and implement the policies, guidelines, reform plans, rules and regulations and methods of administration of state-owned capital, organize the implementation of making inventories of the assets and liabilities of state-owned enterprises, the definition and registration of the ownership and rights of capital and assets, be in charge of the statistics and analysis of state-owned capital, and guide the appraisal of properties; formulate and implement government policies, guidelines, rules and regulations and methods of management of domestic debts, compile plans of the issue of treasury bonds, formulate government policies and guidelines, rules and regulations and methods of management of foreign debts; supervise the implementation of policies, guidelines, laws and regulations on finance and taxation; and check and report on important issues in the manage ment of financial
expenditure and revenue and put forward policy proposals on strengthening financial management.
The ministry consists of 20 departments: the general affairs office, comprehensive financial affairs department, budget department, law and regulation department, taxation system and regulation department, economic trade department, government debt and financing department, public expenditure department, social security department, agriculture department, eternal financial affairs department, international affairs department, capital construction department, accounting department, state-owned capital administrative department, state-owned capital statistical and appraisal department, property appraisal department, financial supervision department, state comprehensive agricultural development office and personnel and education department.
15. Ministry of Personnel
An office for overseeing personnel work and promotion of the reform of the personnel system, the ministry has the following major responsibilities: to study and formulate plans for the reform of the personnel system, formulate policies and regulations on personnel administration, establish a scientific and legal-based personnel administrative system and supervise the implementation of such a system; study and formulate policies regarding the definition of job requirement and the split-flow of staff members during institutional reform; formulate macro-policies on overall plans, readjustment of the structure and salary distribution of employees in government offices and institutions; compile plans on the staff and their salaries of government offices and institutions; administer the building of the ranks of technological staff in the country and take charge of the planning and development of human resources. The ministry also oversees the State Foreign Expert Bureau.
The ministry operates 11 departments: the general affairs office, policy and regulation department, planning and finance department, administrative department of technological staff, civil servants department, enterprise leaders bureau, office of the special inspectors administration, human resource and flow department, salary, welfare and the retirees department, relocation of demobilized army officers department and international exchange and cooperation department.
16. Ministry of Labor and Social Security
The main responsibilities of the ministry are to formulate basic guidelines and policies for labor and social security work and the overall plan for reforming the labor and social security system, compile development plan and annual work plan for labor and social security undertakings and organize their implementation, draft labor and social security laws and regulations, stipulate administrative regulations and basic standards and organize their implementation and supervision, formulate administrative rules for service and consultation organs on labor and social security policies; represent the state to perform supervision and inspection functions concerning labor and social security, stipulate supervision and inspection standards and rules concerning labor and social security, supervise local labor and social security supervision and inspection organs; formulate basic polices and measures for promoting urban and rural employment, make plans for the development of the labor market, organize the establishment and improvement of employment service system; formulate national standards for the classification of trades and vocational capabilities, formulate and promulgate related trade and industrial standards; draw up basic policies and standards for the social security of the old, unemployed, injured and the sick and those giving birth to babies and supervise the implementation of such policies and standards, formulate the collection, spending, management and operation of social security funds.
The ministry consists of 12 departments: the general affairs office, legal system department, planning and finance department, training and employment department, labor wage department, pension security department, medical security department, rural social security department, social security funds supervision department, international cooperation department, personnel and education department.
17. Ministry of Land and Resources
It is an organ of the State Council in charge of the investigation, planning, management, protection and rational utilization of such natural resources as land, mineral reserves and marine resources with such responsibilities as to draft related laws or formulate related regulations, promulgate regulations on the management of natural resources such as land, minerals and marine resources, study and formulate policies on the management, protection and rational utilization of natural resources, formulate the technical standards, regulations, specifications and methods for the management of such resources, compile and implement overall national plans and other special plans for the use of land; supervise the land resource administrative departments at various levels in enforcing laws and the execution of plans on land, mineral and marine resources; protect the lawful rights and interests of the owners and users of land, mineral and marine resources in accordance with law, undertake the mediation and decision over major disputes of rights, and deal with serious law-breaking cases. It also manages the State Oceanic Administration and State Bureau of Mapping and Surveying.
The ministry operates 14 departments: the general affairs office, policy and regulation department, planning department, finance department, arable land protection department, land registration department, land use department, mineral development department, mineral reserve department, geological environment department, geological survey department, law-enforcement and supervision department, international cooperation and science and technology department, personnel and education department.
18. Ministry of Construction
Its major responsibilities are to study and formulate policies, guidelines, regulations and related development strategies, long- and medium-term plans for and supervise their implementation of, urban planning, village and town planning, engineering construction, urban construction, village and town construction, the construction and building industry, housing and real estate industry, survey and design consulting industry, urban utilities undertakings, and conduct industrial administration; provide guidance to the planning of cities, villages and towns in the country, urban surveying and the surveying for municipal engineering; provide guidance to construction and building activities in the country, standardize the building market, supervise the entry of the building market, engineering bidding, engineering supervision and engineering quality and safety, guide national housing construction and the reform of urban housing system, and undertake administration of housing and real estate industries.
The ministry is made up of 12 departments: the general affairs office, comprehensive finance department, policy and regulation department, science and technology department, standards and quotas department, building administrative department, surveying and design department, urban and rural planning department, urban construction department, housing and real estate industry department, foreign affairs department, personnel and education department.
19. Ministry of Railways
Major responsibilities of the ministry are to formulate development strategy, policies, guidelines and regulations for the railway industry, map out unified national railway regulations and supervise their implementation; formulate the development plan of the railway industry, compile national railway annual plans and organize and supervise their implementation; take charge of industrial administration of railway construction; draw up railway industrial technical policies, standards and management regulations; and cultivate and standardize the railway transport market.
The ministry is made up of 12 departments: the general affairs office, policy and regulation department, development planning department, finance department, science, technology and education department, personnel department, labor and health department, construction administrative department, international cooperation department, safety supervision department, transport bureau, and public security bureau.
20. Ministry of Transportation
An organ of the State Council in charge of highway and waterway transportation, the ministry has such major responsibilities as to formulate development strategies, policies, guidelines, regulations for highway and waterway industries and supervise their implementation, draw up development plans, long- and medium-term plans for highway and waterway transport industries and supervise their implementation, take charge of statistics and information guidance of the transport industry, take care of macro-control of the transportation of the country's key materials and urgent cargo and passengers, organize and implement engineering construction of key national highway and waterway transportation, guide the reform of the transportation industrial system; maintain the order of equal competition in the highway and waterway transportation industry, provide guidance to the optimization of the structure and concerted development of the transport industry; formulate scientific and technological policies, technical standards and specifications for the transport industry, organize key science and technology development projects and promote the technical progress of the transport industry.
The ministry consists of ten departments: the general affairs office, restructuring policy and regulation department, comprehensive planning department, finance department, labor and personnel department, highway department, waterway transportation department, science, technology and education department, international cooperation department and public security bureau.
21. Ministry of Information Industry
A State Council office in charge of the manufacture of electronic and information products, telecommunication industry and the software industry, promotion of information in the national economy and social services in the country, the ministry shoulders such major responsibilities as to study and formulate development strategies, policies, guidelines and overall planning of the national information industry, promote the development of information in the national economy and social services, draft laws and prepare regulations, and promulgate administrative regulations on the electronic and information product manufacturing industry, telecommunication industry and the software industry, take charge of the administrative law-enforcement and the supervision of law-enforcement; study and formulate plans for the development of information in the national economy, assist industrial enterprises and institutions to promote key national information development projects. It also oversees the State Post Bureau.
The ministry is made up of 13 departments: the general affairs office, policy and regulation department, comprehensive planning department, science and technology department, economic restructuring and operation department, telecommunication administrative bureau, economic regulation and telecommunication settlement department, electronic and information product department, military-use electronics bureau, information promotion department, wireless administrative bureau, foreign affairs department, and personnel department.
22. Ministry of Water Resources
A branch of the State Council in charge of the administration of water, the ministry has such tasks as to formulate policies, regulations, development strategies, long- and medium-term plans of water conservation, draft related laws, regulations and supervise their implementation; and exercise unified management of water resources.
The ministry consists of ten departments: the general affairs office, planning department, water resource and hydrology department, economic regulation department, labor and personnel department, international cooperation, science and education department, construction and management department, water and soil conservation department, and rural water conservation department.
23. Ministry of Agriculture
This is an office of the State Council in charge of rural areas and rural economic development. Its major responsibilities are to study and formulate development strategies, long- and medium-term development plans for agriculture and rural economy and organize the implementation of such strategies and plans, study and draw up industrial policies for agriculture, take care of the drafting of various agricultural laws and regulations, study and propose opinions on deepening economic restructuring of the rural economy; represent the state to exercise the rights of inspection, administration of the fishery industry and the supervision and management of fishing harbors; draft laws and regulations on animal and plant disease prevention and inspection, organize and supervise disease prevention and inspection of animals and plants in the country, conduct inter-governmental matters concerning agriculture, organize international economic and technological exchange and cooperation, and undertake the routine work of the State Council's Leading Group for Poverty Relief and Development.
The ministry consists of 16 departments: the general affairs office, labor and personnel department, industrial policy and regulation department, rural economic structure and operation department, market and economic information department, development planning department, finance department, international cooperation department, science, technology and education department, plant cultivation industry department, agricultural mechanization department, animal husbandry and veterinary bureau, agricultural reclamation bureau, rural enterprise bureau, fishery bureau, and office of the State Council's Leading Group for Poverty Relief and Development.
24. Ministry of Commerce
In charge of domestic and international trade and international economic cooperation, the ministry has such major responsibilities as to study and formulate policies and regulations for standardizing market operation and circulation order, promote the establishment and improvement of the market system, deepen the reform of the circulation system, monitor and analyze market operation and the situation of commodity supply and demand, conduct international economic operation, coordinate anti-damping, anti-subsidy matters and investigate the harm such acts have brought to industries.
The ministry has 25 departments and offices: the general affairs office, personnel, education and labor department, policy research office, law department, planning and finance department, Asian affairs department, Northwest Asian and African affairs department, Europe department, America and Oceania department, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macao office, international economic and trade relations department, WTO department, foreign trade department, machinery and electric equipment import and export department, scientific development and technological trade department, market system department, commerce reform and development department, market operations regulation office, foreign investment department, external aid department, external economic cooperation department, import and export fair trade bureau, industrial damage investigation bureau, information technology department, and foreign affairs department.
25. Ministry of Culture
A functional department of the State Council in charge of culture and art undertakings, the ministry has such major responsibilities as to study and formulate policies, guidelines and regulations on culture and art and supervise their implementation, study and map out development strategies and plans of cultural undertakings, provide guidance to the reform of the cultural system, take charge of literary and art undertakings, offer guidance to artistic creation, and production, give assistance to representative, demonstrative and experimental artistic forms, take charge of overall management of major national cultural activities, plan and guide the construction of key national cultural facilities, take overall responsibility of administering the cultural market, formulate development plans for the cultural market, manage libraries, and oversee the State Cultural Relics Bureau.
The ministry has ten departments: the general affairs office, policy and regulation department, planning and finance department, personnel department, art department, education, science and technology department, cultural market department, cultural industry department, social cultural department and bureau for external cultural exchanges.
26. Ministry of Health
Major responsibilities of the ministry are to study, draft and formulate laws, regulations, policies and guidelines on health work, review and put forward development plans and strategic goals for health undertakings, formulate technical and health standards and supervise their implementation, study and propose regional health plans, overall plans and coordinate the distribution of national health resources, map out community health service plans and service standards, provide guidance to the implementation of health plans; conduct national health education, draw up plans for the prevention and cure of diseases that pose serious harm to groups of people, organize comprehensive prevention and cure of serious diseases, publicize quarantines against infectious diseases and monitor infectious disease catalog; study and offer guidance to reform of the medical structure, stipulate vocational standards for medical staff, medical quality and service standards and supervise their implementation; review and draw up key national plans for medical science and education development, organize key national scientific research projects in medicine and health, direct the popularization and application of medical scientific research achievements. It also oversees the State Traditional Chinese Medicine Administration.
The ministry is made up of ten departments: the general affairs office, personnel department, planning and finance department, health legal system and supervision department, grassroots health and care of women and children department, medical administrative department, disease control department, science, technology and education department, international cooperation department and health care bureau.
27. State Population and Family Planning Commission
The commission's major responsibilities are to draw up guidelines and policies for family planning, organize and draft laws and regulations concerning population and family planning, assist related departments to formulate social and economic policies, promote the comprehensive handling of population and family planning work, study China's population development strategy, and draw up long- and medium-term as well as annual plans for family planning in the country, in accordance with population control targets decided by the State Council.
The commission consists of seven departments: the general affairs office, policy and regulation department, planning and finance department, publicity and education department, science and technology department, personnel department and international cooperation department.
28. People's Bank of China
The central bank of China, it is a branch of the State Council in charge of formulating and implementing monetary policies and exercise macro-control of the monetary sector. Its main responsibilities are to formulate and implement monetary policies according to law; issue Renminbi, and manage its circulation; examine, approve and supervise monetary institutions according to regulations; supervise and manage the monetary market; publicize orders and regulations on the management and business operations of the financial industry; hold, manage and operate China's foreign exchange reserve and gold reserve; manage the national treasury; maintain the normal operation of the payment and settlement systems; be in charge of the statistics, investigation, analysis and forecast of the monetary industry; conduct other monetary business; and perform related international monetary activities in the capacity of China's central bank. It also oversees the State Administration of Foreign Exchange.
Its departments include: the general affairs office, law and regulation department, monetary policy department, statistics department, accounting and finance department, payment science and technology department, international department, domestic auditing department, personnel and education department.
29. National Auditing Office
Major responsibilities of the office are to review and formulate auditing policies and guidelines, take part in the formulation of laws and regulations concerning auditing, finance and economy, stipulate auditing regulations and rules and supervise their implementation, handle the review and registration of local auditing regulation and rules, direct, coordinate and supervise the operation of auditing institutions at various levels; report auditing results to the State Council and departments of the State Council, put forward suggestions for and improve related policies, regulations and macro-control measures; directly conduct following auditing areas in accordance with China's auditing: law implementation of the central budget and other financial revenue and expenditure, financial revenue and expenditure of various central government organs, institutions and their subsidiaries, implementation of the budgets of provincial governments and their final accounts, revenues and expenditure of the central bank and assets, debts, losses and gains of central monetary institutions, the financial revenue and expenditure of social security funds managed by departments of the State Council or social organizations entrusted by the State Council, environmental protection funds, social donations and other funds and capitals, financial revenue and expenditure of aid and loans by foreign organizations and governments as well as any other items to be audited by the National Auditing Office as prescribed by laws and regulations; submit to the premier of the State Council on the implementation of the central budget and auditing result, submit to the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, as entrusted by the State Council, the auditing results on the implementation of the central budget and other financial revenue and expenditure; organize the implementation of industrial and trade auditing, special auditing and investigative auditing on the carrying out of state policies and macro-control of finance and economy, organize local auditing bodies to conduct auditing on the economic responsibilities of officials during their term of office, handle the appeal of reviews lodged by audited institutions against auditing decisions of auditing organs; work together with provincial governments to jointly lead provincial auditing organs, cooperatively handle the appointment and removal of leaders of provincial auditing organs, administer offices of special auditors stationed in different regions; cooperate with special inspectors to conduct supervision and auditing of key and large national enterprises and key national construction projects in accordance with regulations and decisions of the State Council, organize auditing and supervision of other state-owned enterprises and national construction projects; carry out guidance and supervision of domestic auditing; supervise auditing business qualities of social auditing organizations; conduct special training in the auditing field and carry out international exchange in the auditing field.
The office is made up of 12 departments: the general affairs office, legal system department, financial auditing department, monetary auditing department, government administrations and institutions auditing department, economic and trade auditing department, agriculture, resources and environmental protection auditing department, social security auditing department, fixed asset investment auditing department, foreign capital utilization auditing department, foreign affairs department, personnel and education department.
Organizations directly under the State Council:
1. General Administration of Customs
An administrative law-enforcement institution in the area of customs, it is charged with such tasks as to study and map out the policies, guidelines, regulations and development plans for the work of the customs and supervise their implementation, administer all customs offices in the country from the central to the local levels; study and draw up the regulations and implementation rules for the collection of tariffs, organize the collection of import-export tariff and the management of other taxes, implement in accordance with law anti-damping and anti-subsidy measures; implement customs search and assume unified responsibility of combating smuggling.
The GAC consists of ten departments: the general affairs office, policy and regulation department, tariff collection and administration department, customs clearance department, supervision department, comprehensive statistics department, investigation department, international cooperation department, personnel and education department, finance, science and technology department.
2. State Administration of Taxation
It mainly carries such responsibilities as to draft laws and regulations on tax collection and formulate implementation rules accordingly, put forward suggestions on taxation policies and, jointly with the Ministry of Finance, review, submit, and draw up implementation measures, study the general level of taxes, put forward proposals on macro-control through the method of collecting taxes, draw up and supervise the implementation of taxation regulations.
The administration is made up of 12 departments: the general affairs office, policy and regulation department, circulation tax department, income tax department, local tax department, import-export tax collection department, collection department, inspection and search bureau, finance department, planning and statistics department and personnel department.
3. State Environmental Protection Administration
The administration shoulders such major tasks as to draw up state policies, guidelines and regulations for environmental protection, formulate administrative regulations, make appraisals of, as entrusted by the State Council, the impact on environment by important economic and technological policies, and development plans, draw up national plans for the protection of environment, map out and supervise the implementation of key pollution prevention and treatment plans and ecological protection plans in key areas and along rivers and lakes as designated by the state, compile the definition of division of environmental protection functions; investigate serious environment pollution incidences and ecological destruction cases, coordinate inter-provincial pollution disputes, take charge of environment supervision and administrative inspection for environmental protection, conduct nationwide inspection and law-enforcement activities for environmental protection.
It is made up of ten departments: the general affairs office, planning and finance department, policy and regulat
ion department, administrative system and personnel department, scientific and technological standards department, pollution control department, natural ecological protection department, nuclear safety and environmental radiation department, supervision department and international cooperation department.
4. General Administration of Civil Aviation of China
The administration is charged with such tasks as to study and put forward policies, guidelines and strategies for the development of the civil aviation industry, draft laws and regulations for civil aviation, and supervise their implementation once they are adopted, promote and guide structural reform of the civil aviation industry and enterprise reform.
It is made up of 11 departments: the general affairs office, air safety office, regulation planning, science and technology department, finance department, personnel and education department, international cooperation department, transport department, flying standards department, air craft airworthiness department, airport department and public security department.
5. State Administration of Radio, Film and Television
It studies and draws up policies and guidelines for radio and TV publicity and the creation of film and TV programs, provides guidance to radio and TV publicity and creation of radio, film and TV programs and coordinates the planning of their topics and stories, offers guidance to the reform of the administrative system of radio, film and television, studies and drafts laws and regulations for undertakings in radio, film and TV industries, formulates management regulations and development plans for radio, film and TV undertakings; supervises radio and TV programming, the receiving and recording of satellite TV programs and audio-visual programs broadcast to the public through information networks, takes charge of the import and approval of importing of programs for radio broadcasting and TV screening, examines and approves radio and TV broadcasting institutions, and the establishment and dismissal of film, radio and TV program producing units at and above the county level, checks the content and quality of films and TV dramas and other programs aired on radio and TV, issues and withdraws licenses for film making and showing, TV drama making and releasing. It exercises leadership over China's National Radio, China Radio International and China Central Television Station.
The administration consists of nine departments: the general affairs office, chief editor's office, film bureau, social management department, personnel and education department, planning and finance department, science and technology department, foreign affairs department and security department.
6. State General Administration of Sports
Also known as All-China Sports Federation, it consists of nine departments: the general affairs office, mass sports department, competitive sports department, sports economy department, policy and regulation department, personnel department, external liaison department, science and education department and publicity department.
7. National Bureau of Statistics
An office of the State Council charged with compiling statistics and the assessment of the national economy, it shoulders such tasks as to draw up regulations for statistical work, statistical reform, and fulfill national statistical and investigation plans, exercise leadership over, supervise and check the statistical work in different regions and departments, supervise and check the implementation of statistical laws and regulations.
The bureau has 11 departments: the general affairs office, policy and regulation department, statistics design department, national economic comprehensive statistics department, national economic assessment department, industry and transport statistics department, fixed asset investment statistics department, trade and foreign economic aid statistics department, population and social science department, personnel department, finance and capital construction department,
8. State Administration of Industry and Commerce
An organization of the State Council charged with the supervision and administration and administrative law-enforcement in the market, it shoulders such major tasks as to study and formulate policies, guidelines and draft laws and regulations on the administration of industry and commerce, draw up and promulgate regulations concerning the management in industry and commerce; be in charge of the registration of industrial and commercial enterprises and units and individuals engaged in business operations, approve their names, examine, approve and issue business licenses and supervise their operation; supervise and check market competition, deal with monopoly and other unjust competition cases, protect the lawful rights and interests of consumers, oversee business operators and agents, economic contracts and the registration of pledges of movable property, supervise auctions and take care of the registration of trade marks.
The administration has ten departments: the general affairs office, law and regulation department, fare transaction department, department for the protection of the rights and interests of consumers, market regulation department, enterprise registration department, advertisement supervision department, self-employed economy supervision department, personnel and education department, international exchange and cooperation department.
9. General Administration of Press and Publication
The GAPP (concurrently the State Copyright Bureau) is a State Council office for overseeing press, publication and copyright management. It mainly shoulders such tasks as to draft laws and regulations on publishing and copyright, study and draw up policies and guidelines concerning the press and publishing industry, formulate standards and important administrative measures in the fields of press and publication and copyright, implement them and supervise their implementation, map out plans for the development of the press and publishing industry, macro-control targets and industrial policies and supervise their implementation, take part in the formulation of economic policies and related economic macro-control measures for the press and publishing industry; examine and approve newly established publishing houses and distribution units, examine and approve audio-video publishing units, electronic publishing and production units, newspaper groups, collective copyright managing bodies and agents involving foreign investment, approve the founding of Sino-foreign joint venture and cooperative enterprises in the press and publishing industry, supervise press and publishing activities and the printing industry; be in charge of copyright work; and take care of the planning and publishing of ancient books and documents.
It is made up of nine departments: the general affairs office, book publishing department, newspapers and journals department, audio-video and electronic publishing department, distribution department, printing industry department, personnel and education department, external cooperation department and copyright department.
10. State Forestry Administration
It is charged with such tasks as to draw up policies and guidelines for the care of forest ecological environment, protection of forest resources, and the planting of trees in the country, draft related laws and regulations and supervise their implementation; formulate national development strategies, long- and medium-term plans for the forestry industry and implement them.
The administration consists of ten departments: the general affairs office, tree planting department, forest resources department, wildlife protection department, forest safety department, policy and regulation department, development planning and funding department, science and technology department, international cooperation department, personnel and education department.
11. State Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision and Quarantine
In 2001, according to a decision of the State Council, the State Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision and the State Bureau of Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine were merged into this organization charged with such tasks as to oversee matters related to quality, measurements, entry-exit commodity inspection, entry-exit quarantine, entry-exit quarantine of plants and animals and the approval of related licenses and standards.
According to decisions of power delegation by the State Council, the administration of license approval and standardization is respectively placed with the China State License Approval and Supervision Committee (also known as the State License Approval and Supervision Bureau) and China Standardization Committee (also known as the State Standardization Bureau). Both committees are overseen by the State Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision.
It is made up of 15 departments: the general affairs office, law and regulation department, quality department, measurement department, customs clearance business department, health quarantine department, animal and plant quarantine department, quarantine supervision department, import-export food safety bureau, boiler pressure and container safety supervision bureau, product quality supervision bureau, law-enforcement inspection department (also known as Office for Combating Fake Products under the State Bureau of Quality and Technical Supervision), international cooperation department (also known as science and technology department), personnel department, planning and finance department.
12. State Food and Drug Supervision Administration
An administrative law-enforcement organization of the State Council on the supervision of food and drugs, it is mainly charged with such tasks as to study, produce, circulate, supervise drugs by administrative and technical means in the country; exercise comprehensive supervision and coordination for the safety management of food, health enhancing products and cosmetics, conduct investigation and take action against serious accidents in accordance with law.
It is made up of ten departments: the general affairs office, policy, law and regulation department, food safety coordination department, food safety inspection and supervision department, drug registration department, medical apparatus department, drug safety supervision department, drug market supervision department, personnel and education department, and international cooperation department.
13. State Intellectual Property Office
It is a State Council organization charged with overseeing and coordinating matters related to patents and international-related intellectual properties. It also drafts laws and formulates regulations on intellectual property and supervises their enforcement.
The organization has five departments: the general affairs office, law and regulation department, international cooperation department, coordination department, planning and development department.
14. National Tourism Administration
Its tasks are to study and formulate policies, guidelines and plans for the development of tourism industry, draw up administrative rules and regulations for the industry and supervise their implementation, study and draw up development strategy of the international tourism market, undertake external publicity of China's overall tourism image and major sales promotion activities, organize and provide guidance to the development of important tourism products, offer guidance to market development of offices stationed outside China; cultivate and improve the domestic tourism market, study and formulate strategies and methods for developing domestic tourism and guide their implementation.
The administration consists of six departments: the general affairs office, policy and regulation department, tourism promotion and international liaison department, development planning and finance department, quality standardization department, labor, personnel and education department.
15. State Administration of Religious Affairs
Its major responsibilities are to study and propose policies and guidelines for the work related to religious affairs, formulate and implement such policies and guidelines, investigate and study the religious situation in China and abroad to maintain grasp of the developments, study the issue of religious theories, propose policy suggestions; guide and promote religious circles to conduct their activities within the framework of law and policies and protect citizens' freedom of religious belief.
The administration is made up of four departments: the general affairs office, policy and regulation department, first business department and second business department.
16. Counselors' Office of the State Council
It is a united front and consulting organization of the State Council charged with such tasks as to study and investigate the situation of the implementation of certain policies in the performance of the government, find out and reflect popular sentiments, take part in the discussion of government affairs and offer consultative opinions.
The office has two subsidiary departments: the general affairs office and the business office.
17. Government Offices Administration of the State Council
It mainly undertakes such jobs as to study and formulate policies, guidelines and regulations for the work of government offices and implement them, manage the administrative funds, social security funds, and housing subsidies of government offices and the budgets of government offices.
The offices consists of eight branches: the general affairs office, finance department, house and property department, service department, logistics reform and comprehensive management department, people's anti-air-raid office, department of offices stationed in the capital by various provincial governments and the personnel department.
Administrative Offices under the State Council
1. Foreign Affairs Office of the State Council
It undertakes the routine work of the Central Leading Group for Foreign Affairs Work and holds the function of administering foreign affairs at a certain designated level and within a certain designated scope.
2. Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the State Council
It assists the premier of the State Council in conducting his work related to overseas Chinese affairs. The office is in charge of formulating policies, guidelines and regulations on the work of overseas Chinese affairs, supervise and check their implementation.
The office consists of six departments: the secretary and administrative affairs department, overseas Chinese policy department, overseas department, economy, science and technology department, culture, education and publicity department, and personnel department.
3. Hong Kong and Macao Affairs Office of the State Council
Its responsibilities are to, in accordance with the principle of "one country, two systems" and related policies and guidelines of the central authorities, study the political, economic, financial, cultural and other social developments in Hong Kong and Macao and put forward suggestions for the central authorities to adopt policies, guidelines and strategies; take overall responsibility for and coordinate the work and business exchanges between various central government offices and provincial governments with the governments in the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macao.
The office has five departments: the secretary and administrative affairs department, Hong Kong economy department, Hong Kong political affairs department, Hong Kong society and culture department and Macao affairs department.
4. Legislative Affairs Office of the State Council
The office assists the premier in conducting his work in the legal field. Its responsibilities are to make overall plans and execute unified plans on the legislative work of the State Council, formulate the State Council's annual arrangement for legislation and oversee their implementation upon approval by the State Council.
It consists of eight departments: the secretary and administrative affairs department, department of legal system in labor and social security affairs, department of legal system in education, science, culture and health affairs, department of legal system in finance and monetary affairs, department of legal system in industry, transport and commercial affairs, department of legal system in agricultural resources and environmental protection, government legal system coordination department, law and regulation translation and foreign affairs department..
5. Research Office of the State Council
It shoulders the tasks of comprehensive study of policies and consulting on policy decisions.
It consists of six departments: the secretary department, comprehensive research department, macro-economic research department, industry, transport and trade research department, rural economy research department, and social development research department.
6. Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council
An administrative as well an institutional office of the State Council, it carries the names of both Taiwan Affairs Office of the State Council and Taiwan Work Office of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China. It is thus also listed in offices directly under the Central Committee of the CPC.
Its main responsibilities are, following policies and guidelines of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, to manage, guide and coordinate the work related to Taiwan of various offices of the State Council, and governments of the provinces in such areas as economy, science, education and culture; supervise and check on the implementation by various offices and localities of the policies and guidelines of the Central Committee of the CPC and the State Council, and organize the formulation of related policies and principles for affairs involving Taiwan.
7. Information Office of the State Council
Its job is to promote Chinese media to publicize China to the world, including introducing China's policies, stands, economic development, history and culture. It runs press conferences and provides books and other publications, TV and film products in fulfilling its mission of publicizing China to the outside world. It assists foreign journalists to cover China so as to ensure effective, objective and accurate reporting on China. It conducts, on an extensive basis, exchanges and cooperation with foreign government agencies and the mass media. In conjunction with other departments and offices, it promotes external cultural exchanges.
Institutions Directly under the State Council
1. Xinhua News Agency
2. Chinese Academy of Sciences
3. Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
4. Chinese Academy of Engineering
5. Development Research Center of the State Council
6. National School of Administration
7. China Seismological Bureau
8. China Meteorological Administration
9. China Securities Regulatory Commission
10. China Insurance Regulatory Commission
11. State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission
12. China Banking Regulatory Commission
13. National Social Securities Fund Council
14. National Natural Science Foundation of China
(China.org.cn May 20, 2003)