The People’s Congress System 

All power in China belongs to the people. The organs through which the people exercise state power are the NPC and the local people’s congresses. Therefore, the people’s congress system is China’s fundamental political system. Its basic characteristics are: It has extensive representation, and is the basic form for the people to administer the country. It follows the principle of democratic centralism, i.e., it guarantees that the people enjoy extensive democracy and rights, at the same time guaranteeing that state power is exercised in a centralized and unified way. Under the premise that the people’s congresses exercise the state power in a unified way, the state’s administrative power, judicial authority, procuratorial authority and the leadership over the armed forces are clearly divided to ensure that the organs of state power and administrative, judicial, procuratorial and other state organs work in a coordinated way.

Deputies to the people’s congresses at all levels are elected, and are responsible to and accept supervision by the people. The deputies are broadly representative; they include people from all ethnic groups, all walks of life, and all regions, classes and strata. As they come from the people, they maintain close ties with their respective constituencies and the electorates, and earnestly listen to their views and demands. When the congresses meet to discuss issues concerning major policies and principles, they can air their views fully and carry out the decisions after they have been made. Hence, the people’s views can be collected and the people can administer state affairs through the people’s congresses.

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Last updated: 2000-07-13.