VII. Enhancing International Exchanges and Cooperation
Based on the principles of "mutual benefit and win-win cooperation, being practical and effective," China has continuously and proactively participated in and promoted practical cooperation with other governments, international organizations and institutions, and is playing a positive and constructive role in advancing global cooperation on climate change.
(I) Furthering Cooperation with International Organizations
China's National Development and Reform Commission has joined the United Nations Environment Programme in the Enhancing Capacity, Knowledge and Technology Support to Build Climate Resilience of Vulnerable Developing Countries, a project funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF). Under the guidance of the Ministry of Health, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention has collaborated with the World Health Organization on Piloting Climate Change Adaptation to Protect Human Health, another GEF-funded project that is being implemented smoothly in China. The Ministry of Science and Technology and the National Development and Reform Commission have jointly held the Fourth Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum (CSLF) Ministerial Conference. The State Forestry Administration has hosted the First APEC Meeting of Ministers Responsible for Forestry, the 24th Session of the UN Food and Agriculture Organization Asia-Pacific Forestry Commission, the Second Asia Pacific Forestry Week, and the Forum on Ecology for Northeast Asia. Supported by the Asia-Pacific Network for Sustainable Forest Management (APFNet), China has begun research on improving the abilities of Asia-Pacific forestry departments to address climate change, and has launched international cooperation programs. China's Ministry of Civil Affairs has proactively boosted dialogues and exchanges within the frameworks of the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO), China-Japan-South Korea, China-Russia-India, and the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), and promoted multilateral cooperation mechanisms for disaster mitigation and relief.
(II) Strengthening Cooperation with Developed Countries
China's National Development and Reform Commission has held bilateral consultations on climate change with the EU, Germany, Britain, and Denmark and pushed for the adoption of relevant framework agreements and the launch of cooperation projects. Within the framework of the China-US Clean Energy Research Center (CERC), China's Ministry of Science and Technology has conducted fruitful joint research with its US counterpart in the areas of clean coal technology, energy-efficient building technology, and electric automobiles. To enhance cooperation in energy-efficient building technology research, China's Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development has signed cooperation memorandums with its counterparts in the United States, Germany, Britain, Canada, and Denmark. China's Ministry of Transport and the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Development co-hosted the First China-German Conference on Green Logistics, which deepened international exchanges and cooperation on low-carbon transport. The Civil Aviation Administration of China, the US Trade and Development Agency, and the Federal Aviation Administration jointly organized the High Level Training on Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction in Aviation, which provided an opportunity for the Chinese delegates to learn about the US aviation industry's management systems, operating mechanisms, relevant technologies and research projects for energy conservation and emissions reduction. The training has also provided the Chinese delegates with practices and experience of the US civil aviation sector in addressing climate change.
(III) Deepening Cooperation with Developing Countries
China's National Development and Reform Commission has vigorously promoted South-South cooperation on climate change, and has signed the Memorandum of Understanding on Providing Foreign Aid to Address Climate Change with Ethiopia, Grenada, Nigeria, Madagascar, and Benin, promising to donate energy-saving and low-carbon products to these countries. It has also successfully arranged eight seminars on addressing climate change in developing countries, which offered training to more than 300 officials and professionals from 81 countries. China's Ministry of Science and Technology supported 13 international seminars focusing on developing countries' efforts to address climate change, covering the fields of biomass, solar energy, methane, desertification prevention and control, water-saving high-efficiency agriculture, grassland ecological construction, tropical biodiversity, treatment of flue gases from coal-fired power plants, and exploration of non-timber forest products. To help developing countries improve their climate change adaptation capabilities, the ministry supported a series of foreign aid programs in areas such as renewable energy, building marine disaster early warning capability in the South Pacific island countries, development and general application of LED products, comprehensive utilization of straw, hybrid solar-wind power generation systems, and fertilizer-drip irrigation technology. During a ministerial training course on water resources and small hydropower stations hosted by the Ministry of Water Resources, China shared its experience with senior officials from other developing countries on enhancing water resource management and the use of small hydropower stations in the context of climate change. China's State Oceanic Administration has issued an International Cooperation Framework Plan on the South China Sea and its Adjacent Oceans (2011-2015), giving funding priority to the ocean and climate change and marine disaster prevention and mitigation. Collaborating with neighboring countries, China initiated China-Indonesia Observation on the Air-sea Inter-action and Observation and Research Projects on Monsoon Jets in the Indian Ocean. China's State Forestry Administration has successfully held the Seminar on Monitoring Deforestation and Land Degradation and Evaluating South-South Cooperation within the Climate Change Framework", to discuss forestry cooperation with other developing countries in addressing climate change.
(IV) Promoting Cooperation on Clean Development Mechanism Projects
As of the end of August 2012, China had approved 4,540 clean development mechanism (CDM) projects, focusing on new energy and renewable energy, energy conservation and the enhancement of energy efficiency, methane recycling and relevant areas. Their estimated annual certified emissions reduction (CER) has reached 730 million tons of CO2 equivalent. A total of 2,364 of the projects have been registered with the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism Executive Board, accounting for 50.41 percent of the world's total registered programs. Their estimated certified emission reduction (CER) has reached 420 million tons of CO2 equivalent annually, accounting for 54.54 percent of the global total. China tops the list in both numbers of registered projects and annual certified emissions reduction (CER). So far, 880 of the registered Chinese projects have been approved, and the total issuance volume has reached 590 million tons of CO2 equivalent, which is a major contribution to the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol.