II. Improving Top-level Planning, Systems and Mechanisms
Since 2012, China has strengthened major strategic studies and top-level planning on addressing climate change, and further improved its management systems and working mechanisms in the field. The strategic position of addressing climate change has been remarkably raised in both national economic and social development.
(I) Improving Management Systems and Working Mechanisms
Improving governing bodies. In July 2013, the State Council made an adjustment to the composition and personnel of the National Leading Group for Addressing Climate Change, with Premier Li Keqiang acting as group leader and several functional departments being added. China has established a basic management system and working mechanism for addressing climate change, in which the National Leading Group for Addressing Climate Change takes a leadership role; the National Development and Reform Commission is responsible for centralized administration, and tasks are assigned between relevant departments and local governments with a wide public participation as well. All the provinces (including the autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) have established their respective leading groups for addressing climate change with the province governor serving as group leader, have set up a mechanism for inter-departmental coordination and have designated the functional bodies for addressing climate change. A number of cities have established offices for addressing climate change or low-carbon offices.
Building a target responsibility system for carbon intensity reduction. China has carried out a decomposition of CO2 emissions per capita GDP reduction target during the 12th Five-Year Plan Period (2011-2015), assigned the decomposed targets to all provinces (including the autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) and set up a target responsibility assessment system. In 2013, the National Development and Reform Commission, together with the relevant departments, formulated the assessment measures and made a tentative assessment of the completion of the greenhouse gas emission control target, the implementation of tasks and measures and the basic work and capacity building undertaken at the provincial level in 2012.
(II) Strengthening Strategic Studies and Plan Formulation
Carrying out major strategic studies for addressing climate change. The National Development and Reform Commission together with the Ministry of Finance has carried out a macro strategic study of low-carbon development in China, which systematically analyzed and studied the overall target, phased tasks, implementation methods and safeguarding measures of low-carbon development by 2020, 2030 and 2050. The study has laid the foundation for China's low-carbon development road map and has already obtained initial achievements. Meanwhile, the National Development and Reform Commission has developed a national strategy for climate change adaptation. The strategy, based on the assessment of the impact of climate change on China's economic and social development, has laid out clear guidelines and principles for climate change adaptation, as well as proposed adaptive goals, major tasks, regional patterns and safeguarding measures. Provinces, including Zhejiang, Henan and Liaoning, have carried out their own regional strategic studies for addressing climate change.
Strengthening plan formulation for addressing climate change. The National Development and Reform Commission has organized the compilation of the National Plan for Addressing Climate Change (2013-2020). After an overall analysis of the trends and impacts of climate change in China, as well as the current situations and challenges in addressing climate change, the National Development and Reform Commission proposed the main target, major tasks and safeguarding measures for addressing climate change by 2020. Additionally, it has outlined the general framework for addressing climate change in China. All provinces (including the autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) have taken active steps in carrying out the formulation of mid- and long-term plans for addressing climate change at the provincial level. So far, provinces, such as Jiangxi and Tianjin Municipality, have issued regional plans for addressing climate change. Sichuan, Yunnan, Guangxi Autonomous Region, Anhui, Chongqing Municipality, Gansu, Ningxia Autonomous Region, Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Qinghai and Liaoning have already completed the formulation of their plans, which are expected to be officially issued this year.
(III) Promoting Legislation on Climate Change
The National Development and Reform Commission, the Environment Protection and Resources Conservation Committee of the National People's Congress (NPC), the Law Committee of the NPC, the Legislative Affairs Office of the State Council, together with relevant departments , have set up a leading group for drafting laws on addressing climate change in a bid to quicken the law drafting process and have established a basic legislative framework. Shanxi and Qinghai provinces have issued their respective laws, namely the Measures on Addressing Climate Change in Shanxi Province and the Measures on Addressing Climate Change in Qinghai Province. Legislation in Sichuan and Jiangsu provinces are currently on a steady track. In October 2012, the Shenzhen Municipal People's Congress passed the Provisions of Carbon Emissions Management of the Shenzhen Special Economic Zone to strengthen the management of carbon emissions trading in Shenzhen.
(IV) Improving Relevant Policy Systems
In 2012, the General Office of the State Council published the Work Division Scheme for the Work Plan for Controlling Greenhouse Gas Emissions during the 12th Five-Year Plan Period, defining an overall outline for the plan's implementation. The central government has issued a series of policy papers on addressing climate change, as part of efforts to improve China's policy system in this regard, including the Action Plan for Addressing Climate Change in Industry (2012-2020), the National Plan for the Development of Science and Technology on Climate Change during the 12th Five-Year Plan Period, the Interim Measures on Low-carbon Products Certification Management, the Plans for Energy Development during the 12th Five-Year Plan Period, the Plans for the Development of Energy-Efficient and Environmental-Protection Industries during the 12th Five-Year Plan Period, the Suggestions on Speeding up the Development of Energy-Efficient and Environmental-Protection Industries, the Industrial Energy Efficiency during the 12th Five-Year Plan Period, the 2013 Implementation Plans for Industrial Energy Efficiency and Green Development, the Action Plan for Green Architecture, as well as the National Eco-system Protection during the 12th Five-Year Plan Period.