VIII. Playing a Constructive Role in International Negotiations
With a high sense of responsibility, China has continued to play a constructive role in international climate change negotiations since 2012, promoting mutual understanding and consensus among all parties, and making a positive contribution to building a fair and reasonable international mechanism for addressing climate change.
(I) Proactive Participation in International Negotiations within the UN Framework
China adheres to the UNFCCC and the Kyoto Protocol as the basic framework, gives active play to the main channel of international climate change negotiations within the UN framework. China upholds the principles of “common but differentiated responsibilities”, and fairness and respective capabilities. It abides by the principles of openness and transparency, extensive participation, signatory leadership and consensus through consultation. China has always actively and constructively participated in negotiations, strived to make progress in negotiations based on fairness and reason, practice and efficiency, as well as cooperation and win-win policy, and reinforced the all-round, effective and sustainable implementation of the UNFCCC.
In 2012, China took an active part in international negotiations within the UN framework, and continued with dialogues with other countries to further understanding and expand common ground, and made a positive contribution to the success of the Doha Climate Change Conference. China played an active role in the negotiations and consultations at the Doha Climate Change Conference, adhered to the principles of maintaining openness and transparency, extensive participation and consensus through consultation and pushed for a consensus among all parties with a positive, reasonable and practical posture. Following the joint efforts of China and other developing countries, the Doha Climate Change Conference achieved a balanced package of results, accomplished the Bali Road Map negotiations, finalized arrangements for international action to fight climate change before 2020, worked out a plan for negotiations within the Durban Climate Change Conference framework, determined principles governing further actions after 2020, maintained the effectiveness of the United Nations multilateral negotiations progress, and boosted confidence in international cooperation to address climate change. During the Doha Conference negotiations, the Chinese delegation held an eight-day Chinese Corner series of side events with 18 themed activities, taking advantage of all channels and means to engage in candid and profound dialogues and exchanges which drew wide attention and positive feedback from all parties.
(II) Extensive Participation in Related International Dialogue
Pushing forward negotiations through high-level visits and major conferences. At the meeting of the BRICS leaders, the G20 Leaders' Summit, the APEC Leaders Summit and at other significant multilateral diplomatic events, Chinese President Xi Jinping made important speeches and worked in concert with leaders of other countries on climate change. The leaders of China and the United States attached great importance to the climate change issue as they reached a crucial consensus on strengthening dialogues and cooperation in climate change and the issue of HFCs during two meetings in 2013. At the 5th Round of the China-US Strategic and Economic Dialogue (S&ED) convened in July 2013, special representatives from the two sides co-chaired a special session on climate change, which helped to reinforce exchanges on their domestic climate change policies and bilateral practical cooperation. When former Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao attended the 2012 United Nations Climate Change Conference in June 2012, he called all parties to address climate change in accordance with the principle of “common but differentiated responsibility”, develop the green economy and promote sustainable development.
Proactive participation in climate change conferences and progress outside the UNFCCC. China took part in a series of international consultations and exchanges, including the Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, the Leaders' Representatives Meetings of the Major Economies Forum on Energy and Climate, the ministerial-level dialogue meeting on climate change in St. Petersburg and the Pre-COP19 Preparatory Ministerial-Level Meeting. China took an active part in negotiations under international mechanisms, such as the International Civil Aviation Organization, the International Maritime Organization, the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer and the Universal Postal Union. China also actively participated in the Global Alliance for Clean Cookstoves, the Global Methane Initiative, the Global Research Alliance on Agricultural Greenhouse Gas while promoting negotiations on the UNFCCC as the main channel for progress.
Extensive engagement in bilateral and multilateral climate change dialogues and consultations. China continues to strengthen consultation mechanisms among the BASIC countries and developing countries with similar positions, and conduct joint research with other developing countries, and actively safeguard the interests of developing countries. China held bilateral ministerial-level negotiations with developed countries including the United States, EU and Australia on climate change, to engage in extensive dialogues on climate change international negotiations, domestic climate change policies and related practical cooperation. China also actively boosted communication with think tanks from other countries.
(III) China's Basic Position at the Warsaw 2013 UN Climate Change Conference
In November of this year, the 19th session of the Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC and the 9th Session of the Conference of the Parties serving as the Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol will be held in the Polish capital, Warsaw. At the end of last year, the Doha Climate Change Conference concluded the negotiations on the authorization of the Bali Road Map and this year's Warsaw Climate Change Conference should be an implementation and launch meeting. The priority at the Warsaw Conference is to take concrete actions to implement the results of the Bali Road Map negotiations, such as mitigation, adaptation, funding, technology, reviews and transparency, pushing all parties to swiftly ratify the Amendment to the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol, keep discussing relative unsolved issues under the protocol, and fulfill the agreements and promises made at previous conferences. Developed countries should fulfill their emission cuts, funding and technology transfer pledges from previous conferences and scale up efforts with action before 2020. This is the foundation for maintaining mutual trust among all parties and also the precondition and guarantee for progress made at the Durban Conference negotiations. In the meantime, all parties should closely follow the principle of the UNFCCC and the authorization of the Durban Conference to launch substantive negotiations on mitigation, adaptation, funding and technology in a formal, balanced and targeted fashion, and strengthen the all-round, effective and sustainable implementation of the UNFCCC after 2020.
The Warsaw Conference should focus on two issues. One is that all parties in the second commitment period of the protocol should ratify the Amendment to the second commitment of the protocol as soon as possible, and set a higher emission-cutting target in line with the agreement reached at the Doha Conference. According to the principle of comparability, developed countries who have not signed up to the second commitment period of the protocol, or have withdrawn from or have not ratified the protocol should also raise their levels of emission cuts before 2020 in tandem with the members of the second commitment period of the protocol. Developing countries will implement their proposed targets for emission-cutting action after they receive funding, technology and capability-building support from developed countries. The conference should also focus on the funding issue as a priority, and handle it properly. Developed countries should promise to inject funds of no less than the fast-start funding between 2013 and 2015, chart a clear course for meeting the funding pledge of US$100 billion by 2020, invest in the Green Climate Fund as soon as possible and ensure that developing countries get concrete funding support.
China will continue to play an active and constructive role at the Warsaw conference, and work with all parties to ensure a successful conference by following the principle of openness and transparency, extensive participation, signatory leadership and consensus through consultation.