VI. Strengthening Foundational Capacity Building
Since 2012, China has continued to develop statistics and accounting systems for greenhouse gas emissions, promoted basic study and educational training, strengthened scientific research and decision-making support, and provided financial security, which has significantly enhanced its foundational capability to deal with climate change.
(I) Strengthening Statistics and Accounting Systems for Greenhouse Gas Emissions
Developing basic statistics systems. In 2013, the National Development and Reform Commission and the National Bureau of Statistics released Opinions on Improving Response to Climate Change and Statistical Work for Greenhouse Gas Emissions, which stresses establishing a statistical indicator system in order to improve greenhouse gas emissions statistics. The Government Offices Administration of the State Council has published the Statistics System of Energy and Resources Consumption in Public Institutions which establishes a standard for energy and resources consumption statistics in public institutions, and gathered and analyzed statistics on energy and resources consumption by public institutions in 2011 and 2012. The number of public institutions directly included in the statistics has been extended to 690,000. Based on provincial forest resources and other forestry statistics, the State Forestry Administration measured the forested area and the changes in different provinces across the country.
Improving greenhouse gas emissions accounting capabilities. In 2012, the National Development and Reform Commission organized the compilation of the Second National Report (the greenhouse gas emissions inventory for 2005) and submitted it to the secretariat for the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Third National Report is currently at the project application stage and is expected to include the 2010 and 2012 greenhouse gas emission inventories. A total of 31 provinces (including autonomous regions and municipalities) have compiled greenhouse gas emission inventories, cleaned up their greenhouse gas emissions, and carried out annual accounting work for carbon intensity reduction. The assessment for the 2005 and 2010 provincial greenhouse gas emission inventories is currently being implemented. In addition, carbon emissions calculation methods and reporting guidelines have been compiled for enterprises in the chemicals, cement, steel, non-ferrous metals, electricity, aviation and ceramics industries. Provinces and cities with carbon emissions trading right have carried out or are carrying out enterprise carbon emissions projects, and are trying to establish a third-party accounting system for carbon emission.
(II) Strengthening Policy Research and Educational Training
Strengthening policy research. Since 2012, thanks to financial support provided by the China Clean Development Mechanism Fund and other financing channels, a range of policy research projects on climate change have been carried out. By the end of 2012, a total of 495 million yuan in funds and donations had been arranged, more than 100 donation projects had been supported, and numerous research programs on domestic and international problems on climate change had been carried out.
Strengthening educational training. The National Development and Reform Commission has organized five joint training projects between China and German on climate change capability building, and five seminars on compiling provincial greenhouse gas emission lists and low-carbon development, attracting leaders from relevant organizations and professional staff from technology supporting institutions from 24 provinces and cities. The Government Offices Administration of the State Council has organized a range of energy-saving training sessions in public institutions for government leaders and university directors. The State Forestry Administration published the high school students' textbook Forest Carbon Sink Metering and Climate Change, produced three TV series, Song of the Forest, Dream of the Earth and Forest China, and promoted training on forest carbon sink metering and monitoring.
(III) Strengthening Scientific Research and Decision Making Support
Strengthening scientific research. The Ministry of Science and Technology has organized the compilation of the Third National Assessment Report on Climate Change which systematically summarizes China's scientific achievements on climate change, and formulates the National Achievement Transformation, Promotion and Application Lists on Energy Conservation, Emissions Reduction and Low-Carbon Technology. In April 2012, the Ministry of Science and Technology released Specific Plans for Clean Coal Technology During the 12th Five-Year Plan Period which determined clean coal technology as an important direction in advanced energy, focusing on efficient clean coal-fired power generation, advanced coal conversion, advanced energy-efficient technology, regulation of pollutants and resource utilization technology. The Government Offices Administration of the State Council has carried out research projects on new energy and renewable energy applications for public institutions, building the energy efficiency of central state organs, and the energy efficiency management information system for public institutions. The Ministry of Land and Resources has carried out a series of research programs on geothermal investigation and exploration, geologic traces of climate changes and geologic carbon sink, as well as initiatives to make technological breakthrough on CO2 geological storage. The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine has carried out preliminary studies on relevant climate change standards. The State Forestry Administration has carried out empirical research on how forests can mitigate the impacts of climate change, and organized potential and process studies of carbon sequestration in a typical ecosystem. The Meteorological Administration has assessed climate change for the first time in the east, south, north, northeast, middle, southwest and northwest of China as well as the Xinjiang region. The Ministry of Water Resources has undertaken more than 10 significant research programs such as the impact of climate change on water resources security and how to response to it. The Ministry of Health and the State Family Planning Commission has initiated research on adaptation mechanisms, assessment and prediction to address the impact of climate change on human health. The State Oceanic Administration has launched remote sensing monitoring and evaluating systems for air-sea CO2 in China's coastal waters.
Strengthening support for decision making. In 2012, the National Development and Reform Commission established the National Strategic Research and International Cooperation Center for Climate Change, which aims to provide decision consulting and a supporting service for climate change. The National Climate Change Expert Committee has actively organized consulting and communication activities on climate change. The General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine has permitted 23 national urban energy measurement centers to provide all-round technical support for low-carbon economic development through several platforms, such as the energy measurement public data platform, the energy measurement detection technique service platform, energy measurement technical research platform and energy measurement talent training platform. Provincial research institutions have been established to combat climate change and promote low-carbon development. Tianjin founded the Low-Carbon Development Research Center (TLCC); Zhejiang Province set up the Center for Climate Change and Low-carbon Development Cooperation; and Beijing established the Climate Change Response Research and Education Center (BCCRC) among municipal universities to reinforce scientific and decision supporting capabilities for climate change.